Fathers and Founders List

This article was originally based on the information presented in the wiki article.[1] The rest has been filled in after finds from outside of the wiki. This list serves as a reference for when certain studies were officially established. I’m not aware of any other list on the internet which contains information presented in the way I’ve presented this information. The list is ordered by the birth date of the person who is considered the founding member of a specific study. The dates in BC have BC after their numbers. The dates in AD do not have AD after their numbers.

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Thucydides (5th century BC) – Father of Scientific History, Father of the School of Political Realism

Herodotus (484-425 BC) – Father of History, Father of Lies, Father of Greek Historiography

Hippocrates (c.460-370 BC) – Father of Medicine

Aristotle (c.300s BC) – Father of Biology, Father of Logic, Father of Rhetoric

Euclid (c.300s-200s BC) – Father of Geometry

Archimedes (c.200s BC) – Father of Mathematics

Eratosthenes (c.200s-100s BC) – Father of Geography

Sima Qian (c.100s-1 BC) – Father of Chinese Historiography

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.260-340) – Father of Church History

Saint Benedict of Nursia (fl. 6th century) – Father of Western Monasticism

Venerable Bede (c.672-735) – Father of English History

Jabir ibn Hayyan (c.721-815) – Father of Chemistry

Muhammed ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (780-850) – Father of Algebra

Abul-Kasim Hasan Pur-Ali Tusi Ferdowsi (c.940-1020) – Father of Iranology

Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) – Father of Humanism

Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) – Father of Historiography, Father of Cultural History, Father of the Philosophy of History

Geoffrey Chaucer (c.1343-1400) – Father of English Literature

Ciriaco de’ Pizzicolli (1391-1453) – Father of (Classical) Archaeology

Galileo Galilei (1473-1543) – Father of Modern Physics/Science

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) – Father of Modern Astronomy

Juan Luis Vives (1493-1540) – Father of Modern Psychology

Felix Felicianus of Verona (15th century) – Father of Epigraphical Forgery [2]

Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574) – Father of Art History

Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) – Father of Modern Anatomy

Conrad Gesner (1516-1565) – Father of Bibliography

Hieronymus Wolf (1516-1580) – Father of Byzantine Studies

Joseph Scaliger (1540-1609) – Father of Modern Chronology

William Gilbert (1544-1603) – Father of Electricity and Magnetism

John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) – Father of Modern Education

René Descartes (1596-1650) – Father of Modern Philosophy, Father of Modern Epistemology

Francesco Redi (1626-1697) – Father of Parasitology

Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694) – Father of Microscopical Anatomy, Histology, Physiology, and Embryology

Dom Jean Mabillon, O.S.B. (1632-1707) – Father of Palaeography, Father of Diplomatics

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) – Father of Microbiology, Father of Protozoology

Nicolas Steno (1638-1686) – Founder of Stratigraphy

Thomas Tompion (1639-1713) – Father of English Clockmaking

Isaac Newton (1643-1726) – Father of Classical Mechanics, Father of Physics

Montesquieu (1689-1755) – Progenitor of Anthropology

Anne Claude de Caylus (1692-1765) – Father of Classical Archaeology

Peter Artedi (1705-1735) – Father of Ichthyology

Gerhard Friedrich Müller (1705-1783) – Father of Ethnography

Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) – Father of Ecology, Father of Taxonomy

Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) – Father of the Modern Dictionary

Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768) – Father of Modern Archeology, Father of Classical Archaeology

James Hutton (1726-1797) – Father of Geology

James Watt (1736-1819) – Father of Mechanical Engineering

Joseph Eckhel (1737-1798) – Father of Numismatics

Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) – Father of Modern Chemistry, Father of Nutrition

René Just Haüy (1743-1822) – Father of Modern Crystallography

Lindley Murray (1745-1826) – Father of English Grammar

Sir William Jones (1746-1794) – Father of Indology

Ernst Chladni XR (1756-1827) – Father of Acoustics

Erik Acharius (1757-1819) – Father of Lichenology

Noah Webster Jr. (1758-1843) – Father of American Scholarship and Education

William Kirby (1759-1850) – Father of Entomology

Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) – Founding Father of Paleontology

Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) – Father of Ecology

Luke Howard (1772-1864) – Father of Meteorology

Sir George Cayley (1773-1857) – Father of Aerodynamics, Father of the Aeroplane, Father of Aerial Navigation

André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836) – Father of Electrodynamics

Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) – Father of Egyptology

Michael Faraday (1791-1867) – Father of Electricity

Horace Mann (1796-1859) – Father of American Education

Sir John Gardner Wilkinson (1797-1875) – Father of British Egyptology

Matthew Maury (1806-1873) – Father of Oceanography

Charles Darwin (1809-1882) – Father of Evolution

Robert Mallet (1810-1881) – Father of Seismology

Austen Henry Layard (1817-1894) – Father of Assyriology

Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) – Father of Genetics

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) – Father of Biogeography

Sir Dietrich Brandis (1824-1907) – Father of Tropical Forestry and Scientific Forestry

William Stubbs (1825-1901) – Father of Modern History

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) – Father of Psychology

Oswald Schmiedeberg (1838-1921) – Father of Modern Pharmacology

Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903) – Father of Energetics

Josef Ritter von Karabacek (1845-1918) – Founder of (Arabic) Papyrology

Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky (1847-1921) – Father of Russian Aeronautics, Founder of Modern Hydrodynamics

Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) – Father of Modern Logic

Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (1853-1942) – Father of Archaeology

Roberto Mantovani (1854-1933) – Father of Expanding Earth Theory, Father of Continental Drift

Father of Psychoanalysis – Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

Franz Boas (1858-1942) – Father of American Anthropology and Modern Anthropology

Aleksey Shakhmatov (1864-1920) – Founder of Scientific Textology

A. E. Douglass (1867-1962) – Father of Dendrochronology

Vernon Louis Parrington (1871-1929) – Father of American Studies

Edward Johnston (1872-1944) – Father of Modern Calligraphy

Dr. Ludwig Klages (1872-1956) – Father of Modern Graphology

Wilhelm Schubart (1873-1960) – Founder of (Greek) Papyrology

Robert Elmer Horton (1875-1945) – Father of Hydrology

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) – Father of Physics

Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) – Father of Plate Tectonics

Howell Williams (1898-1980) – Father of Modern Volcanology

Edward Louis Bernays (1891-1995) – Father of Public Relations (Propaganda)

G. Evelyn Hutchinson (1903-1991) – Father of Modern Ecology

Zhou Youguang (1906-2017) – Father of Pinyin

Konrad Lorenz (1909-1989) – A Founder of Modern Ethology

Heinrich C. Berann (1915-1999) – Father of Modern Cartography

Noam Chomsky (1928-present) – Father of Linguistics

This list is far from exhaustive. If there are any specific entries that you would like to have added to this list, please email me @ chronologytruth@gmail.com or comment below on this article. I am aiming to keep it limited to important studies, but also am open to adding fun/interesting ones as well.

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[1] – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_people_considered_father_or_mother_of_a_scientific_field

[2] – Abbott, Frank Frost. “Some Spurious Inscriptions and Their Authors.” Classical Philology, vol. 3, no. 1, 1908, pp. 22–30. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/262031. Accessed 6 June 2020.

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One Comment on “Fathers and Founders List

  1. I’m impressed, I must say. Seldom do I encounter a blog that’s both educative and amusing, and without a doubt, you have hit the nail on the head. The problem is something not enough men and women are speaking intelligently about. I am very happy that I found this in my hunt for something relating to this.


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