Provenance Studies

This article contains information about Provenance Studies. While typically Provenance Studies is mentioned in relation to geological studies, I am interested in Historical Provenance Studies. As far as I’m aware, there is no discipline yet that has this name in the historical arenas. ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ M. R. James (1899) reports that he was… Continue Reading


The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (ASC) is the most important historical source in English history for the period of 500-1189 AD. The ASC is made up of 7 manuscripts, labeled by M. R. James as A-F. The first attempt at printing the fragments of the ASC was made by by Professor Wheloc around 1644. The second attempt was… Continue Reading


Ten Examples of Deception

People have been deceiving others throughout all of recorded human history. Studying the ways that deception has been employed in the past can help us avoid being deceived in the future. Be it a fake tunnel painted on a brick wall or an AI that convinces you it’s a human; deception can be tricky and… Continue Reading


Investigating The Parker Chronicle, ASC

The Parker Chronicle (Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, MS. 173) is a fundamental manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. Its siglum is A-Prime to distinguish it from “A – Cottonian Fragment (Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, MS. 173)”. It is also sometimes known as the A-version. While they are both in the same MS, they are two separate… Continue Reading


Early References to Josephus

On my list so far, there are 45 references to Josephus (37-100AD) from 22 authors. The earliest reference to Josephus is made by Irenaeus (c.130-180). Irenaeus was born 30 years after Josephus died. The authors in the order they are listed in [1]:1 – Theophilus (c.180?)2 – Irenaeus (c.130-c.202)3 – Clement of Alexandria (c.150-c.215) –… Continue Reading


Jesus in Josephus

On the Mentions of Jesus Christ Book 18, Chapter 3, Sections 63-64, contains the Testimonium Flavianum. Book 20, Chapter 9.1, Section 200 mentions “the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James”. Book 18 and 20 are only preserved in 3 out the above 13 manuscripts. The MSS are A (11th c.),… Continue Reading