List of Calendars

Numerous calendars have been created by people all over the world. This article briefly explores these. The dates below represent when each calendar is commonly believed to have been introduced for usage.

“The standard works on ancient Greek and Roman calendars in English are Bickerman (1968/1980) and Samuel (1920). …They stand at the end of a long and venerable European tradition in the history of chronology which goes back through Ginzel (1906-14) to Ideler (1825-6) to Scaliger (1629). These latter works remain fundamental, but they are also practically inaccessible for most people.”
– Robert Hannah (2013)[2, p.1]

“Without dating and time-keeping devices, it would be close to impossible to coordinate political, economic, religious, and all other social activities; without calendars, society would not be able to function.”
– Sacha Stern (2012)[3, p.1]

Solar Calendars

45 BCE: Julian calendar

1st century CE: Coptic calendar

1st century CE: Ethiopian calendar

988 CE: Byzantine calendar

1079 CE: Jalali calendar

10th century CE: Old Icelandic calendar

1281 CE: Seasonal Instruction

13th century CE: Runic calendar

1582 CE: Gregorian calendar

1645 CE: Seasonal Constitution

1700 CE: Swedish calendar

1740 CE: Astronomical year numbering

1745 CE: Pancronometer

1793 CE: French Republican Calendar

1839 CE: Rumi calendar

1849 CE: Positivist calendar

1873 CE: Baháʼí calendar

1888 CE: Thai solar calendar

1900 CE: Invariable calendar

1902 CE: International Fixed Calendar

1912 CE: Minguo calendar

1923 CE: Revised Julian calendar

1925 CE: Solar Hijri calendar

1926 CE: Era Fascita

1929 CE: Soviet calendar

1930 CE: World calendar

1930 CE: Pax calendar

1949 CE: Pataphysical calendar

1957 CE: Indian national calendar

1963 CE: Discordian calendar

1973 CE: World Season Calendar

1989 CE: Tranquility Calendar

1993 CE: Holocene calendar

1997 CE: Juche era calendar

1998 CE: Nanakshahi calendar

2004 CE: Symmetry454

2004 CE: Hanke-Henry Permanent Calendar

Lunar Calendars

1000 BCE: Gezer Calendar

632 CE: Islamic calendar

9th century CE: Nepal Sambat

1633 CE: Javanese calendar

1950s CE: Assyrian calendar

2009 CE: Igbo calendar

Lunisolar Calendars

Bronze Age: Umma calendar

Iron Age: Six Ancient Calendars

Iron Age: Gaulish calendar

Ancient India: Vikram samwat

713 BCE: Roman calendar

6th century BCE: Attic calendar

4th c. BCE: Old Persian calendar

4th c. BCE: Seleucid Calendar

3rd c. BCE: Genesis calendar

238 BCE: Ptolemaic calendar

510 CE: Chinese calendar, Dàmíng origin (大明曆)

6th century CE: Japanese calendar

619 CE: Chinese calendar, Wùyín origin(戊寅元曆)

640 CE: Pyu calendar

11th-12th c. CE: Hebrew calendar

13th c. CE: Tibetan calendar

15th c. CE: Incan calendar

15th c. CE: Muisca calendar

16th c. CE: Chula Sakarat

Fixed Days Calendars

Bronze Age: Egyptian calendar (365 days)

1st millennium BCE: Haab’ (365 days)

1st millennium BCE: Tzolk’in (260 days)

1st c. CE: Qumran calendrical texts (364 days)

3rd c. CE: Zoroastrian calendar (365 days)

Mediaeval: Armenian calendar (365 days)

Pawukon calendar (210 days)

Tonalpohualli (260 days)

Xiuhpohualli (365 days)

Lunar/Solar Galactic Calendar

1990 CE: Dreamspell

My Alphabetical Selection

Agricultural calendar/s[6, p.114], [8, p.56]

Aitolian calendar[6, p.82]

Alexandrian calendar[6, p.90]

Arithmetical calendar/s[7, pp.viii-ix]

Astronomical calendar/s[7, p.ix]

Astronomical lunar calendars[7, p.x]

Astronomical solar calendars[7, p.ix]

Athenian calendar[6, p.29]

Aztec calendars[7, p.ix]

Babylonian calendar[6, p.83], [7, p.x]

Balinese Pawukon calendar[7, p.ix]

Baha’i calendar[7, p.x]

Bengali calendar[5, pp.63, 103]

Bouleutic calendars[6, p.70]

British calendar[5, p.87]

Caesarian calendar[8, p.101]

Christian calendar[5, p.63]

Chinese calendar[1, p.24]

Calendar of Miletos[6, p.81]

Calendar of Filocalus[6, p.139]

Classical Hebrew calendar[7, p.x]

Clog calendar[5, p.105]

Coptic calendar[7, p.89]

Delian calendar[6, p.74]

Dionysian calendar[7, p.89]

Delphic calendar[6, p.40], aka Delphian calendar[6, p.81]

Double cycle calendars[7, p.ix]

Ecclesiastical calendars[7, p.viii]

Egyptian calendar[6, p.85], [8, p.39]

Elean calendar[6, p.81]

Ethiopic calendar[7, p.91]

Federal calendars[6, p.79]

Festival calendars[6, p.70]

French Revolutionists’ calendar,[5, p.68] French Revolutionary calendar[7, p.x]

Fusli[5, p.63]

Greek calendar/s[1, p.26]

Gregorian calendar[1, p.85]

Haab calendar[7, p.ix]

Hebrew calendar[1, p.160]

Icelandic calendar[7, p.99]

Indus Valley calendars[1, p.28]

Imperial calendar[8, p.24]

ISO calendar[7, p.95]

Islamic calendar[1, p.27], aka Moslem calendar[5, p.63]

Japanese calendar[7, p.x]

Jewish calendar[1, p.25]

Julian calendar[1, p.29], [6, p.112]

Korean calendar[7, p.x]

Liturgical calendars: Roman Catholic Church[1, p.29], Christian[1, p.31]

Local calendar[8, p.40]

Lunar celandar[6, p.31]

Lunisolar calendar[1, p.24]

Macedonian calendar[8, p .38]

Mayan calendar[1, p.29], calendars[7, p.ix]

Mesoamerican calendars[1, p.28]

Mesopotamian calendar[1, p.25]

Meteorological calendars[8, p.44]

Metonic calendar[1, p.23]

Modern Hindu calendars[7, p.x]

Mycenaean calendar[6, pp.16, 26]

Old Hindu calendars[7, p.ix]

Observational calendars[6, pp.43, 48]

Observational Islamic calendar[7, p.x]

Phokian calendar[6, p.79]

Persian calendar[7, p.ix]

Public calendars[6, p.102]

The Republican calendar[6, p.98]

Regulatory calendars[6, p.49]

Ritual calendar[6, p.71]

Roman calendar[1, p.23]

Russian calendar, also called Old Style[5, p.100]

Samaritan calendar[7, p.x]

Samvat calendar[5, pp.63, 102]

Seleucid calendar[6, p.95]

Single cycle calendars[7, p.ix]

Solar calendar[1, p.24], [6, p.33]

Star calendars (parapegmas)[6, p.52-53]

Stellar calendar[8, p.39]

Stone calendars[8, p.101]

Statutory Calendar[5, p.16]

Statute Law Calendar of Great Britain[5, p.60]

Standard Mesopotamian calendar[6, p.83]

Sumerian calendars[6, p.27]

Syro-Macedonian calendar[5, p.30]

Thessalian calendar[6, p.81]

Tibetan calendar[7, p.x]

Tzolkin calendar[7, p.ix]

Vietnamese calendar[7, p.x]

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References:

[1] – Mondschein, Ken, and Neal Stephenson. On Time: a History of Western Timekeeping. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2020.

[2] – Robert Hannah. “Greek and Roman Calendars: Constructions of Time in the Classical World” (2013). https://books.google.com/books?id=qTWPAQAAQBAJ&dq=ancient+calendars&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Accessed 18 Dec. 2020.

[3] – Sacha Stern. “Calendars in Antiquity: Empires, States, and Societies” (2012). https://books.google.com/books?id=FI9pAgAAQBAJ&dq=ancient+calendars&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Accessed 19 Dec. 2020.

[4] – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_calendars. Accessed 26 Oct. 2020.

[5] – James Cecil Macdonald. “Chronologies and Calendars” (London, 1897).

[6] – Hannah, Robert. Greek and Roman Calendars: Constructions of Time in the Classical World. Illustrated, Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2005. Accessed 23 Jan. 2021.

[7] – Edward M. Reingold & Nachum Dershowitz. “Calendrical Calculations: The Ultimate Edition” (Cambridge, 2018). Accessed 27 Jan. 2021.

[8] – E. J. Bickerman. “Chronology of the Ancient World” (1968). Accessed 30 Jan. 2021.

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