Appeal to Anger

a.k.a.; Argumentum ad iram ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ The appeal to anger fallacy is committed when a person claims anger as evidence for the validity of a claim. This fallacy can also be known as an appeal to hatre, an appeal to hate, or an appeal to outrage. There are two types; one uses anger… Continue Reading

Selective Perception

~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ Selective perception is a cognitive bias. Selective perception is “the tendency for expectations to affect perception.” This can manifest as a tendency to ignore stimuli which contradict convictions and cause discomfort. This can be seen when a person is presented with a body of new information and they only select the… Continue Reading

The Backfire Effect

The contents of this article cover the basics of the backfire effect. The information here is largely based upon the information presented by Full Fact in a publication from March 2019. ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ What is the backfire effect? Definitions; (1) – Full Fact’s definition; “A “backfire effect” refers to the effect that, when… Continue Reading


~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ Cryptomnesia is when someone has an idea or a memory that they either believe is new or originally theirs, but in reality it is not new or belongs to someone else. An example may be seen when someone who thinks they’ve just had an idea for the first time ever has… Continue Reading

Burden of Proof

~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ The Burden of Proof (onus probandi) is when a party which claims a claim must provide substantiation for their claim. This proof is commonly required court rooms for proving someone to be innocent or guilty. The burden of proof is not always on the party making a claim.… Continue Reading

Illusory Truth Effect

~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ The illusory truth effect can be seen when familiar statements are quicker to be accepted as true than unfamiliar statements (1). The wiki claims that it was “first identified in a 1977 study at Villanova University and Temple University” (2). The concept behind the existence of this effect… Continue Reading


Anchoring (1) is a cognitive bias which refers to when a person’s decision making is negatively impacted by relying too much on a base piece of information. That is to say, when a person ‘anchors’ on a specific base fact which obscures judgement and goes onto use this base fact as a rationale for additional… Continue Reading