Time is the progression of events through the past, present, and future. The study of time is known as chronology. The word chronology was first used in the 1590s and meant “the science of time”.[1] Chronology is a combination of “chronos” (time) and “logos” (study/science). There is however another study known as horology, which is also defined as the study or science of time. The word horology was first used in 1752 and meant “science of time”.[2] Horology ultimately derives from a word meaning “instrument for telling the hour”.

The main differences between the two is that chronology is typically concerned with determining the order in which past events occurred while horology is typically concerned with studying time for the purpose of creating time keeping devices, such as clocks or sundials. Both studies are important for understanding what time is and how it affects us.

There are three measures of time based on Earth rotating on its axis; sidereal time, solar time, and universal time.[3, p.359]

Solar time is measured by the sun returning to the same spot in the sky. It takes 24 hours.

Sidereal time is measured by the stars returning to the same spot in the sky. It takes 23 hours and 56 minutes.

Lunar time is measured by the moon returning to the same spot in the sky. It takes 24 hours and 50 minutes.

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[1] – https://www.etymonline.com/word/chronology. Accessed 21 Oct. 2020.

[2] – https://www.etymonline.com/word/horology. Accessed 21 Oct. 2020.

[3] – MULHOLLAND, J. DERRAL. “MEASURES OF TIME IN ASTRONOMY.” Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, vol. 84, no. 499, 1972, pp. 357–364. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40675228. Accessed 21 Oct. 2020.

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