Holy Roman-German Empire in Italy in 10th-13th centuries

Start of empire: three great emperors in 10th century AD. Otto I the Great, Otto II the Wild, Otto III the Red. 

A – Otto I as German king 936-973. Octavian, son of Alberic, comes to power at age 16.

B – Otto II 960-983

C – Emperors are German Kaisers. Gold coins of 10th-13th centuries empire are practically unavailable. Empire is officially called Holy.

1 – Henry II the Saint and Conrad the Salian 1002-1039

2 – Conrad II the Salian 1024-1039. Hildebrand 1053-1073-1085. Concise’ treason, “pope’s passion”. 

3 – Henry III the Black 1028-1056. 

4 – Henry IV 1053-1106

5 – Henry V the Black 1098-1125, German king (?) 

6 – or Henry V the Black 1111-1125, Roman emperor

7 – Lothair 1125-1137

8 – Eruption of Vesuvius 1138-1139

9 – Conrad III 1138-1152

10 – Frederick I Barbarossa 1152-1190.

11 – Henry VI 1169-1197

12 – Philip Ghibelline 1198-1208

13 – Otto IV 1198-1218. Erection of famous equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius. 

14 – Frederick II 1211-1250. His title Gattin 

15 – Conrad IV 1237-1254

16 – Interregnum 1256-1273. End of 10th-13th century. Roman Empire. War in Italy in mid-13th century. 

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