Comparing Timelines of Ancient Egypt

This article contains my comparisons of timelines of ancient Egypt that I found on Google. I currently have 30 websites from which I collected data.

This article shows that there are a number of different dates given for different periods of Egyptian history. Below, I present the dates and their sources.

The information collected represents a sample of articles which people might find if they were to search for timeline of ancient Egypt, or a similar term. Unless someone is aware of the differences shown below, they might be lead to believe that there is only one set of dates attributed to a specific period. The contradictions in dates below place 10’s, 100’s, and 1000’s years of history under question.

This article was originally published on March 6, 2019.
The second data set was added on May 28, 2020.

“From the best authorities we learn that Assyria and Egypt were the first seats of civilization; but respecting their early history we have no satisfactory information. That of Egypt is carried back, by some writers, to periods incredibly remote. Several dynasties registered by Manetho probably existed together, ruling in different divisions of the country.”
– John Blair, Blair’s Chronological Tables, Revised and Enlarged, page 1 (1856)

“The … king-list of Manetho has been preserved only in Christian summaries.”[X, p.82]
– E. J. Bickerman (1980)

~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~

Some information taken from the data below:

Predynastic Period:
Total Number of Entries: 25
Oldest Start: 8000 BC
Youngest Start: 3100 BC
Oldest End: 3200 BC
Youngest End: 2700 BC
Longest Total Length: 5300 years
Shortest Total Length: 400 years

Early Dynastic Period (Archaic):
Total Number of Entries: 27
Oldest Start: 3200 BC
Youngest Start: 2950 BC
Oldest End: 2800 BC
Youngest End: 2575 BC
Longest Total Length: 525 years
Shortest Total Length: 300 years

Old Kingdom:
Total Number of Entries: 30
Oldest Start: 2850 BC
Youngest Start: 2575 BC
Oldest End: 2250 BC
Youngest End: 2040 BC
Longest Total Length: 740 years
Shortest Total Length: 425 years

First Intermediate Period:
Total Number of Entries: 29
Oldest Start: 2258 BC
Youngest Start: 2125 BC
Oldest End: 2151 BC
Youngest End: 1975 BC
Longest Total Length: 258 years
Shortest Total Length: 30 years

Middle Kingdom:
Total Number of Entries: 31
Oldest Start: 2125 BC
Youngest Start: 1975 BC
Oldest End: 1797 BC
Youngest End: 1540 BC
Longest Total Length: 500 years
Shortest Total Length: c.213 years

Second Intermediate Period:
Total Number of Entries: 28
Oldest Start: 1786 BC
Youngest Start: 1630 BC
Oldest End: 1570 BC
Youngest End: 1520 BC
Longest Total Length: 223 years
Shortest Total Length: 90 years

New Kingdom:
Total Number of Entries: 31
Oldest Start: 1575 BC
Youngest Start: 1520 BC
Oldest End: 1186 BC
Youngest End: 1069 BC
Longest Total Length: 500 years
Shortest Total Length: 364 years

Third Intermediate Period:
Total Number of Entries: 27
Oldest Start: 1085 BC
Youngest Start: 1069 BC
Oldest End: 728 BC
Youngest End: 525 BC
Longest Total Length: 545 years
Shortest Total Length: 342 years

Late Dynastic Period:
Total Number of Entries: 26
Oldest Start: 728 BC
Youngest Start: 525 BC
Oldest End: 525 BC
Youngest End: 323 BC
Longest Total Length: 396 years
Shortest Total Length: 139 years

Macedonian/Ptolemaic Dynasties:
Total Number of Entries: 30
Oldest Start: 332 BC
Youngest Start: 305 BC
Oldest End: 30 BC
Youngest End: 30 BC
Longest Total Length: 302 years
Shortest Total Length: 274 years

Roman/Byzantine Period:
Total Number of Entries: 21
Oldest Start: 30 BC
Youngest Start: 30 BC
Oldest End: 300 AD
Youngest End: 646 AD
Longest Total Length: 676 years
Shortest Total Length: 330 years

The data is listed as: start-end dates, length, source, and then sometimes what dynasties are included by the source.

Predynastic Period

Total Number of Entries: 25.
Oldest Start: 8000 BC.
Youngest End: 2700 BC.
Longest Total Length: 5300 years.
Shortest Total Length: 400 years.
Difference Between Longest and Shortest: 3900 years.

8000-2700 (5300) – [17]

5500-3100 (2400) – [21]

c.5500-3100 (c.2400) – [19]

c.5500-3100BC (c.2400) – [6]

5500-3050BC (2450) – [10]

5300-3000BC (2300) – [4a]

c.5300-3000 (c.2300) – [16a]

5000-3100BC (2100) – [5]

5000-3000BC (2000) – [7] – O.C. (Orthodox Chronology)

c.5000-2950 (c.2050) – [8]

4500-3000 (1500) – [27] – (Neolithic)

c.4425-3200 (c.1225) – [16b]

4300-3000 (1300) – [14]

c.4000-3100 (c.1100) – [13]

3500-3100 (400) – [15]

3500-3100 (400) – [22]

3500-3000BC (500) – [12] – D.0

Before-3200 – [29]

Before-3100BC – [4b]

Before-3100BC – [2]

3100-2950BC (50) – [9] – (Late)

3100-2950BC (50) – [23] – D.0 (Late)

3100-2950BC (50) – [30] – (Late)

Before-3000BC – [25]

Ends 2780 – [26] – D.1-2

Early Dynastic Period (Archaic)

Total Number of Entries: 27.
Oldest Start: 3200 BC.
Youngest End: 2575 BC.
Longest Total Length: 525 years.
Shortest Total Length: 300 years.
Difference Between Longest and Shortest: 225 years.

3200-2686 (514) – [16] – D.0-2

3200-2686 (514) – [29] – D.1-2

3100-2800BC (300) – [8] – D.1-2

3100-2700 (400) – [21] – D.1-2

3100-2700 (400) – [22] – D.1-2

3100-2686 (414) – [2] – D.1-2

3100-2686BC (414) – [5]

3100-2686 (414) – [11] – D.1-2

3100-2686 (414) – [13]

3100-2686 (414) – [15] – D.1-2

3100-2686 (414) – [19] – D.1-2

3100-2686 (414) – [28] – D.1-2

3100-2600 (500) – [6]

3100-2575BC (525) – [3] – D.1-3

3050-2686BC (364) – [7] – O.C., D.0-2

3050-2675 (375) – [10] – D.1-2

3000-2700 (300) – [20] – D.1-2

3000-2686BC (314) – [4a] – D.1-2

3000-2686BC (314) – [12] – D.1-2

3000-2675 (325) – [14] – D.1-2

3000-2650 (350) – [27]

3000-2575 B.C. (425) – [25] – D.1-2

2950-2575BC (375) – [1] – D.1-3

2950-2575BC (375) – [4b] – D.1-2

2950-2575BC (375) – [9] – D.1-3

2950-2575BC (375) – [23] – D.1-3

2950-2575BC (375) – [30] – D.1-3

Old Kingdom

Total Number of Entries: 30.
Oldest Start: 2850 BC.
Youngest End: 2040 BC.
Longest Total Length: 740 years.
Shortest Total Length: 425 years.
Difference Between Longest and Shortest: 315 years.

2850-2140 (710) – [18] – D.1-6

2800-2250BC (550) – [8]

2780–2040BC (740) – [26] – D.3-4

2700-2200BC (500) – [21] – D.3-6

2700-2200BC (500) – [22] – D.3-6

2686-2181BC (505) – [2] – D.3-6

2686-2181BC (505) – [5]

2686-2181BC (505) – [7] – O.C., D.3-6

2686-2181BC (505) – [11] – D.3-6

2686-2181BC (505) – [12] – D.3-6

2686-2181BC (505) – [13]

2686-2181BC (505) – [15] – D.3-6

2686-2181BC (505) – [19] – D.3-6

2686-2181BC (505) – [28] – D.3-4

2686-2181BC (505) – [29] – D.3-6

2686-2180BC (506) – [17] – D.3-7

2686-2160 (526) – [16] – D.3-8

2686-2125BC (561) – [4a]

2675-2180 (495) – [10] – D.3-6

2675-2130 (545) – [14] – D.3-8

2650-2150 (500) – [27]

ca. 2649–2150 B.C. (499) – [24] – D.3-6

2600-2100BC (500) – [6]

2575-2150BC (425) – [1] – D.4-8

2575-2150BC (425) – [4b] – D.3-6

2575-2150BC (425) – [3] – D.4-8

2575-2150BC (425)- [9] – D.4-8

2575-2150BC (425) – [23] – D.4-8

2575-2150BC (425) – [30] – D.4-8

2575-2134 B.C. (441) – [25] – D.3-6

First Intermediate Period

Total Number of Entries: 29.
Oldest Start: 2258 BC.
Youngest End: 1975 BC.
Longest Total Length: 258 years.
Shortest Total Length: 30 years.
Difference Between Longest and Shortest: 228 years.

2258-c2000 (c.258) – [18] – D.7-11

2250-2000BC (250) – [8] – D.7-9

2200-2000 (200) – [20] – D.7-10

2200-2055 (145) – [22]

2181-2055BC (126) – [5]

2181-2055BC (126) – [11] – D.7-11

2181-2055BC (126) – [21]

2181-2055BC (126) – [28] – D.5-10

2181-2055BC (126) – [29] – D.7-10

2181-2151BC (30) – [2] – D.7-10

2181-2040BC (141) – [7] – O.C., D.7-10

2181-2040BC (141) – [15] – D.7-11

2181-2040BC (141) – [19] – D.7-10

2181-2025BC (156) – [12] – D.7-10

2181-2025BC (156) – [13]

2180-2040BC (140) – [10] – D.7-11

2160-2055BC (105) – [4a] – D.9-11

2160-2055BC (105) – [16] – D.9-11a

ca. 2150–2030 B.C. (120) – [24] – D.8-11a

2150-1975BC (175) – [1] – D.9-11

2150-1975BC (175) – [23] – D.9-10

2150-2040BC (110) – [27]

2134-2040 B.C. (94) – [25] – D.7-10

2130-1980 (150) – [14] – D.9-11a

2125-1975BC (150) – [3] – D.9-11

2125-1975BC (150) – [4b] – D.7-11

2125-1975BC (150) – [6]

2125-1975BC (150) – [30] – D.9-11

2125-1975BC (150) – [9] – D.9-11

Middle Kingdom

Total Number of Entries: 31.
Oldest Start: 2125 BC.
Youngest End: 1540 BC.
Longest Total Length: 500 years.
Shortest Total Length: c.213 years.
Difference Between Longest and Shortest: c.287 years.

2125-1773 (352) – [12] – D.11-12

2125-1650 (475) – [2] – D.11-13

2055-1795BC (260) – [28] D.11-12

2055-1786BC (269) – [5] D.12

2055-1730BC (325) – [17]

2055-1650BC (405) – [4a] – D.11-13

2055-1650BC (405) – [11] – D.12-14

2055-1650BC (405) – [16] – D.11a-14

2055-1650BC (405) – [22]

2055-1650BC (405) – [29] – D.11-12

2050-1640BC (410) – [21]

2040-1797BC (243) – [19] – D.11-12

2040-1782BC (258) – [15] – D.11-12

2040-1782BC (258) – [7] – O.C., D.11-12

2040-1650BC (390) – [10] – D.11-13

2040-1640 B.C. (400) – [25] – D.11-13

2040-1640 B.C. (400) – [27]

2040-1540 B.C. (500) – [26] – D.11-12

ca. 2030–1640 B.C. (c.390) – [24] – D.11b-13

2025-1700BC (325) – [13]

2000-1786 (214) – [8] – D.9-12

2000-1700 (300) – [20] – D.11-13

2000-1650 (350) – [6]

c.1989-1776 (c.213) – [18] – D.12

1980-1630 (350) – [14] – D.11b-14

1975-1640BC (335) – [1] – D.11-14

1975-1640BC (335) – [3] – D.11-14

1975-1640BC (335) – [4b] – D.12-13

1975-1640BC (335) – [9] – D.11-14

1975-1640BC (335) – [23] – D.11-14

1975-1640BC (335) – [30] – D.11-14

Second Intermediate Period

Total Number of Entries: 28.
Oldest Start: 1786 BC.
Youngest End: 1520 BC.
Longest Total Length: 223 years.
Shortest Total Length: 90 years.
Difference Between Longest and Shortest: 133 years.

1786-1570 (216) – [18] – D.13-17

1786-1567BC (219) – [5]

1786-1567BC (219) – [8] – D.13-17

1786-1567BC (219) – [15] – D.13-17

1786-1567BC (219) – [19] – D.13-17

1782-1570BC (212) – [7] – O.C., D.13-17

1773-1550 (223) – [12] – D.13-17

1700-1550 (150) – [13]

1700-1550 (150) – [20] – D.14-17

1650-1550 (100) – [2] – D.15-17

1650-1550 (100) – [4a] – D.14-17

1650-1550 (100) – [10] – D.14-17

1650-1550 (100) – [11] – D.15-17

1650-1550 (100) – [16] – D.15-17

1650-1550 (100) – [22] – D.15-17

1650-1550 (100) – [29] – D.13?-17

1640-1550 (90) – [21]

1640-1550 (90) – [25] – D.14-17

1640-1550 (90) – [27]

ca. 1640–1540 B.C. (c.100) – [24] – D.14-17

1640-1520 (120) – [1] – D.15-17

1640-1520 (120) – [23] – D.15-17

c.1630-1539/23 (c.91/107) – [14] – D.15-17

1630-1520 (110) – [3] – D.15-17

1630-1520 (110) – [4b] – D.14-17

1630-1520 (110) – [6]

1630-1520 (110) – [9]

1630-1520 (110) – [30] – D.15-17

New Kingdom

Total Number of Entries: 31.
Oldest Start: 1575 BC.
Youngest End: 1069 BC.
Longest Total Length: 500 years.
Shortest Total Length: 364 years.
Difference Between Longest and Shortest: 136 years.

1575-1085BC (490) – [8] – D.18-20

1570-1070BC (500) – [7] – O.C., D.18-20

1570-1070BC (500) – [15] – D.18-20

1570-1150 (420) – [18] – D.18-30

1567-1085BC (482) – [5]

1567-1070BC (497) – [19] – D.18-20

1550-1186BC (364) – [28] – D.18-19

1550-1070 (480) – [10] – D.18-20

1550-1070 (480) – [20] – D.18-20

1550-1070 (480) – [21]

1550-1070 (480) – [22]

1550–1070 B.C. (480) – [25] – D.18-20

1550–1070 B.C. (480) – [27]

ca. 1550–1070 B.C. (c.480) – [24] – D.18-20

1550-1069BC (481) – [13]

1550-1069BC (481) – [2] – D.18-20

1550-1069BC (481) – [4a] – D.18-20

1550-1069BC (481) – [11] – D.18-20

1550-1069BC (481) – [12] – D.18-20

1550-1069BC (481) – [16] – D.18-24

1550-1069BC (481) – [17]

1550-1069BC (481) – [29] – D.18-20

1540–1100BC (440) – [26] – D.18-20

1539-1075BC (464) – [3] – D.18-20

1539-1075BC (464) – [4b] – D.18-20

1539-1075BC (464) – [6]

1539-1075BC (464) – [9]

1539-1075BC (464) – [14]

1539-1075BC (464) – [30] – D.18-20

1520 – 1075BC (445) – [1] – D.18-20

1520 – 1075BC (445) – [23] – D.18-20

Third Intermediate Period

Total Number of Entries: 27.
Oldest Start: 1085 BC.
Youngest End: 525 BC.
Longest Total Length: 545 years.
Shortest Total Length: 342 years.
Difference Between Longest and Shortest: 203 years.

1085-664 (421) – [5]

1085-663 (422) – [8]

1075-715BC (360) – [3] – D.21-25

1075-715BC (360) – [4b] – D.21-25

1075-715BC (360) – [6]

1075-715BC (360) – [9]

1075-715BC (360) – [23] – D.21-24

1075-715BC (360) – [30] – D.21-25

1075-656BC (419) – [14] – D.21-25

1075-653BC (422) – [1] – D.21-24

1070-728(?) (342) – [22]

ca. 1070–713 B.C. (c.357) – [24] – D.21-24

1070-712 (358) – [21]

1070-712 (358) – [25] – D.21-24

1070-712 (358) – [27]

1070-670 (400) – [20] – D.21-25

1070-664 (406) – [10] – D.21-25

1070-664 (406) – [15] – D.21-25

1070-525BC (545) – [7] – D.21-26

1069-664BC (405) – [2] – D.21-25

1069-664BC (405) – [4a] – D.21-25

1069-664BC (405) – [11] – D.21-25

1069-664BC (405) – [13]

1069-664BC (405) – [16] – D.21-25

1069-664BC (405) – [29] – D.21-25

1069-656BC (413) – [12] – D.21-25

1069-525BC (544) – [7] – O.C., D.21-25

Late Dynastic Period

Total Number of Entries: 26.
Oldest Start: 1786 BC.
Youngest End: 1520 BC.
Longest Total Length: 396 years.
Shortest Total Length: 139 years.
Difference Between Longest and Shortest: 257 years.

728-332BC (396) [22]

715-332BC (383) – [3] – D.20-30

715-332BC (383) – [4b] – D.26-31

715-332BC (383) – [6]

715-332BC (383) – [9] – D.20-30

715-332BC (383) – [23] – D.25-30

715-332BC (383) – [30] – D.20-30

ca. 712–332 B.C. (c.380) – [24] – D.25-30

712–332 B.C. (380) – [25] – D.25-30

712–332 B.C. (380) – [27]

712-323 (389) – [21]

664-525 (139) – [29] – D.26

664-332BC (332) – [2] – D.26-30

664-332BC (332) – [4a] – D.26-30

664-332BC (332) – [5]

664-332BC (332) – [10] – D.26-31

664-332BC (332) – [11] – D.26-30

664-332BC (332) – [12] – D.26-31

664-332BC (332) – [13]

664-332BC (332) – [14] – D.26-31

664-332BC (332) – [15] – D.26-31

664-332BC (332) – [16] – D.26-31

663-332BC (331) – [8] – D.26-31

653-332BC (321) – [1] – D.25-30

525-332BC (193) – [7] – O.C., D.26-31

525-332BC (193) – [19] – D.27-30

Macedonian/Ptolemaic Dynasties

Total Number of Entries: 30.
Oldest Start: 332 BC.
Youngest End: 30 BC.
Longest Total Length: 302 years.
Shortest Total Length: 274 years.
Difference Between Longest and Shortest: 28 years.

332-311BC (21) – [12] – Macedonian

332-311BC (21) – [15] – Macedonian

332-305BC (27) – [14] – Macedonian

332–304 B.C. (28) – [24] – Macedonian

332-30BC (302) – [2] – Ptolemaic

332-30BC (302) – [4a] – Ptolemaic

332-30BC (302) – [8] – Ptolemaic

332-30BC (302) – [10] – Ptolemaic

332-30BC (302) – [11] – Ptolemaic

332-30BC (302) – [13] – Ptolemaic

332-30BC – (302) [16] – Ptolemaic

332-30BC (302) – [17]

332-30BC (302) – [19] – Ptolemaic

332-30BC (302) – [21] – Ptolemaic

332-30BC (302) – [22] – Ptolemaic

332-30BC (302) – [26] – Ptolemaic

332-30BC (302) – [28]

332-30BC (302) – [29] – Ptolemaic/Greek

332-30BC (302) – [30]

332 – starts [4b]

332 – starts [6]

332 – starts [7] – O.C.

332 – starts [9]

332 – starts [25]

332 – starts [27]

323-30BC (293) – [15] – Plotelmaic

305-30BC (275) – [1]

305-30BC (275) – [13] – Ptolemaic

305BC-30BC (275) – [12] – Ptolemaic

304BC-30BC (274) – [24] – Ptolemaic

Roman/Byzantine Period

Total Number of Entries: 21.
Oldest Start: 332 BC.
Youngest End: 30 BC.
Longest Total Length: 676 years.
Shortest Total Length: 330 years.
Difference Between Longest and Shortest: 346 years.

30BC-300AD (330) – [20]

30BC-395AD (425) – [2]

30BC-395AD (425) – [3]

30BC-395AD (425) – [8]

30BC-395AD (425) – [10]

30BC-395AD (425) – [30]

30BC-639AD (669) – [26]

30BC-640AD (670) – [28]

30BC-641AD (671) – [13]

30BC-641AD (671) – [11]

30BC-641AD (671) – [16] – Post-Dynastic Egypt

30BC-641AD (671) – [29]

30BC-642AD (672) – [14]

30BC-642AD (672) – [22]

30BC-646AD (676) – [21]

395AD – ends [4b]

395AD – ends [5]

395AD – ends [9]

395AD – ends [25]

641AD – ends [7] – O.C.

642AD – ends [27]

~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~

References:

[1] – https://www.ducksters.com/history/ancient_egyptian_timeline.php

[2] – https://australianmuseum.net.au/learn/cultures/international-collection/ancient-egyptian/ancient-egyptian-timeline/

[3] – http://www.datesandevents.org/places-timelines/17-ancient-egyptian-timeline.htm

[4] – https://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/ancient-egypt-timeline.html

[5] – https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/ancient-egypt

[6] – http://www.primaryhomeworkhelp.co.uk/egypt/timeline.html

[7] – https://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/kingslist.html

[8] – https://www.freemaninstitute.com/Gallery/etime.htm

[9] – http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/imperialism/notes/egyptchron.html

[10] – http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/faculty/stsmith/courses/Egyptian%20Religion%20Chronology.pdf

[11] – http://plumsite.com/egypt/timeline-egypt.pdf

[12] – https://www.egyptabout.com/2013/12/egypts-dynasties-timeline.html

[13] – https://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/chronology/index.html

[14] – https://www.memphis.edu/egypt/resources/timeline.php

[15] – http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/dynasties.htm

[16] – https://www.thoughtco.com/dynastic-egypt-timeline-4147743

[17] – https://www.oup.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/58106/Chapter-8-Ancient-Egypt.pdf

[18] – https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/asia-and-africa/ancient-history-egypt/dynasties-ancient-egypt

[19] – http://mstecker.com/pages/egyptdyn_fp.htm

[20] – https://thetorah.com/ancient-egypt-an-overview-of-its-history/

~~~~~
Second Data Set

[21] – https://www.cemml.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/egypt02-01enl.html

[22] – http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/time/explore/main.html

[23] – https://www.historyonthenet.com/ancient-egypt-timeline-2

[24] – https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/phar/hd_phar.htm

[25] – https://www.museedelhistoire.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/egypt/egctimee.html

[26] – https://www.insightguides.com/destinations/africa-middle-east/egypt/historical-highlights

[27] – https://egyptianmuseum.org/interactive-map

[28] – http://www.richard-seaman.com/Travel/Egypt/Timeline/index.html

[29] – https://creation.com/egypt-chronology

[30] – http://brendans-island.com/blogsource/20100402ff-Documents/AncientEgyptTimeline.pdf

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