Disinformation/Misinformation Bibliography

This article contains some bibliographical information about disinfo and misinfo. It is useful for anyone interested in exploring what literature and research has been produced on these topics.


For books:

Worldcat: https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=disinformation&fq=dt%3Abks&dblist=638&qt=sort&se=yr&sd=desc&qt=sort_yr_desc

Goodreads: https://www.goodreads.com/search?page=5&q=disinformation&qid=wiHMry5cbd&tab=books


Here are the links to two annotated bibliographies on the subject:

Heath, Charlee. Annotated Bibliography for Online Misinformation. January, 2021. https://evidencefordemocracy.ca/sites/default/files/reports/annotated_bibliography_v.1.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Lim, Gabrielle. Disinformation Annotated Bibliography. Citizen Lab, University of Toronto, May 2019. https://citizenlab.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Disinformation-Bibliography.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.


LaGarde, Jennifer, and Darren Hudgins. Developing Digital Detectives: Essential Lessons for Discerning Fact from Fiction in the “Fake News” Era. ISTE, 2021.

Jayakumar, Shashi, et al. Disinformation and Fake News. 1st ed. 2021, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020.

Shu, Kai, et al. Disinformation, Misinformation, and Fake News in Social Media: Emerging Research Challenges and Opportunities (Lecture Notes in Social Networks). 1st ed. 2020, Springer, 2021.

Lim’s Bibliography

The following categories were taken from Lim’s annotated bibliography. I’ve rearranged them so that they are listed in alphabetical order. The numbers added after the categories are the number of sources linked in the category.

The format has been updated to allow easier copy and pasting of the citations. Some citations have been modified to change the style or links.

I added “Accessed” dates to each of them to say when I visited the connected link.

I think I might have missed one or two sources in Lim’s Bib. If you notice any missing, please let me know and I can add them back in.

Total number of sources: 91.


1 – Advertising and Marketing (11)

2 – Cognitive Science (12)

3 – Creation and Dissemination (10)

4 – Detection (8)

5 – General (8)

6 – Measuring Reach (7)

7 – Mitigation and Solutions (13)

8 – Political Science and International Relations (14)

9 – Social Media (8)

Advertising and Marketing (11)

Bakir, Vian and Andrew McStay. “Fake News and The Economy of Emotions: Problems, Causes, Solutions.” Digital Journalism 6, no. 2 (2017): 154-175. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2017.1345645. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Carlson, Matt. “When News Sites go Native: Redefining the Advertising-Editorial Divide in Response to Native Advertising.” Journalism 16, no. 7 (October 2015): 849–65. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884914545441. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Carroll, David. “Awkward Conversation With Facebook: What Happened When I Caught Them Defaulting Us Back Into Behavorial Ad Tracking and Targeting.” Medium, June 1, 2016. https://medium.com/@profcarroll/awkward-conversation-with-facebook-ef1734ecdc62. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Einstein, Mara. Black Ops Advertising: Native Ads, Content Marketing and the Covert World of the Digital Sell. New York: OR Books, 2016.

Ghosh, Dipayan and Ben Scott. #DigitalDeceit:The Technologies Behind Precision Propaganda on the Internet. New America, 2018. https://www.newamerica.org/public-interest-technology/policy-papers/digitaldeceit/. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Gomez, Henry J. “The Man Who Made The Republican Internet — And Then Sold It To Far-Right Nationalists Overseas.” Buzzfeed, December 19, 2017. https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/henrygomez/the-man-who-made-the-republican-internet-and-then-sold-it. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Matz, S. C., M. Kosinski, G. Nave, and D. J. Stillwell. “Psychological Targeting as an Effective Approach to Digital Mass Persuasion.” PNAS 114, no. 48 (2017): 12714–19. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1710966114. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Misiewicz, Michael and Laura Yu. Viral Content: The First Warning Sign of Fraud. Appnexus, 2017. https://www.appnexus.com/sites/default/files/whitepapers/appnexus_viralcontentwhitepaper_december2017.pdf. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Nadler, Anthony, Matthew Crain, and Joan Donovan. Weaponizing the Digital Influence Machine: The Political Perils of Online Ad Tech. New York: Data & Society Research Institute, 2018. https://datasociety.net/output/weaponizing-the-digital-influence-machine/. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Wakabayashi, Daisuke and Linda Qiu. “Google Serves Fake News Ads in an Unlikely Place: Fact-Checking Sites.” The New York Times, October 17, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/17/technology/google-fake-ads-fact-check.html. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Zuiderveen Borgesius, Frederik J., Judith Möller, Sanne Kruikemeier, Ronan Ó Fathaigh, Kristina Irion, Tom Dobber, Balázs Bodó, and Claes de Vreese. “Online Political Microtargeting: Promises and Threats for Democracy.” Utrecht Law Review 14, no. 1 (2018): 82-96. http://doi.org/10.18352/ulr.420. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Cognitive Science (12)

Epstein, Robert and Ronald E. Robertson. “The Search Engine Manipulation Effect (SEME) and Its Possible Impact on the Outcomes of Elections.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112, no. 33 (2015): E4512-21. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1419828112. Accessed 20 Jan. 2022.

Fording, Richard C. and Sanford F. Schram. “The Cognitive and Emotional Sources of Trump Support:
The Case of Low-Information Voters.” New Political Science 39, no. 4 (2017): 670-686. https://doi.org/10.1080/07393148.2017.1378295. Accessed 20 Jan. 2022.

Greenhill, Kelly M. and Ben Oppenheim. “Rumor Has It: The Adoption of Unverified Information in Conflict Zones.” International Studies Quarterly 61, no. 3 (2017): 660–76. https://doi.org/10.1093/isq/sqx015. Accessed 20 Jan. 2022.

Introne, Joshua, Luca Iandoli, Julia Decook, Irem Gokce Yildirim, and Shaima Elzeini. “The Collaborative Construction and Evolution of Pseudo-Knowledge in Online Conversations.” In the 8th International Conference on Social Media & Society, Toronto, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1145/3097286.3097297. Accessed 20 Jan. 2022.

Jang, S. Mo, and Joon K. Kim. “Third Person Effects of Fake News: Fake News Regulation and Media Literacy Interventions.” Computers in Human Behavior 80 (2018): 295-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.11.034. Accessed 20 Jan. 2022.

Kahan, Dan M. “Ideology, Motivated Reasoning, and Cognitive Reflection.” Judgment and Decision Making 8, no. 4 (2013): 407–424. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2182588. Accessed 20 Jan. 2022.

De Keersmaecker, Jonas and Arne Roets. “Fake news”: Incorrect But Hard to Correct. The Role of Cognitive Ability on the Impact of False Information on Social Impressions.” Intelligence 65 (November 2017): 107-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2017.10.005. Accessed 20 Jan. 2022.

Nyhan, Brendan and Jason Reifler. “When Corrections Fail: The Persistence of Political Misperceptions.” Political Behavior 32, no. 2 (2010): 303–30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-010-9112-2. Accessed 20 Jan. 2022.

Lewandowsky, Stephan, Werner G. K. Stritzke, Alexandra M. Freund, Klaus Oberauer, and Joachim I. Krueger. “Misinformation, Disinformation, and Violent Conflict: From Iraq and the “War on Terror” to Future Threats to Peace.” American Psychologist 68, no. 7 (2013): 487–501. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034515. Accessed 20 Jan. 2022.

Pennycook, Gordon, Tyrone Cannon, and David G. Rand. “Prior Exposure Increases Perceived Accuracy of Fake News.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 147, no. 12 (2018): 1865–1880. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000465. Accessed 20 Jan. 2022.

Pennycook, Gordon and David G. Rand. “Lazy, Not Biased: Susceptibility to Partisan Fake News Is Better Explained by Lack of Reasoning Than by Motivated Reasoning.” Cognition (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.06.011. Accessed 20 Jan. 2022.

Sundar, S. Shyam. “Why do We Fall for Fake News?” The Conversation, December 7, 2016. http://theconversation.com/why-do-we-fall-for-fakenews-69829. Accessed 20 Jan. 2022.

Creation and Dissemination (10)

Chen, Adrian. The Agency. The New York Times, June 2, 2015. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/07/magazine/the-agency.html. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Chesney, Robert and Danielle Citron. Deep Fakes: A Looming Challenge for Privacy, Democracy, and National Security. California Law Review 107 (2019). https://ssrn.com/abstract=3213954. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Gu, Lion, Vladimir Kropotov and Fyodor Yarochkin. The Fake News Machine: How Propagandists Abuse the
Internet and Manipulate the Public
. Trend Micro, 2017. https://documents.trendmicro.com/assets/white_papers/wp-fake-news-machine-how-propagandistsabuse-the-internet.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Neudert, Lisa-Marie. “Future Elections May Be Swayed by Intelligent, Weaponized Chatbots.” MIT
Technology Review, August 22, 2018. https://www.technologyreview.com/2018/08/22/104087/future-elections-may-be-swayed-by-intelligent-weaponized-chatbots/. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Ong, Jonathan Corpus and Jason Vincent A. Cabañes. Architects of Networked Disinformation: Behind the Scenes of Troll Accounts and Fake News Production in the Philippines. The Newton Tech 4 Dev Network, 2018. http://newtontechfordev.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/ARCHITECTS-OF-NETWORKED-DISINFORMATION-FULL-REPORT.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Phillips, Whitney. The Oxygen of Amplification. Data and Society Research Institute, 2018. https://datasociety.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/FULLREPORT_Oxygen_of_Amplification_DS.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Shao, Chengcheng, et al. “The Spread of Low-Credibility Content by Social Bots.” Nature Communications 9 (2018). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-06930-7. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Silverman, Craig. Lies, Damn Lies and Viral Content. New York: Tow Center for Digital Journalism, 2015. https://doi.org/10.7916/D8Q81RHH. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Tenove, Chris, et al. Digital Threats To Democratic Elections: How Foreign Actors Use Digital Techniques. Vancouver, BC: Centre for the Study of Democratic Institutions, UBC, 2018. https://democracy.arts.ubc.ca/2018/01/18/digital-threats/. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Witness and First Draft. Mal-uses of AI-generated Synthetic Media and Deepfakes: Pragmatic Solutions Discovery Convening. July, 2018. http://witness.mediafire.com/file/q5juw7dc3a2w8p7/Deepfakes_Final.pdf/file. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Detection (8)

Fletcher, Richard, Steve Schifferes, and Neil Thurman. “Building the ‘Truthmeter’ Training Algorithms to Help Journalists Assess the Credibility of Social Media Sources.” Convergence (2017). https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856517714955. Accessed 24 Jan. 2022.

Maddock, Jim, Kate Starbird, Haneen J. Al-Hassani, Daniel E. Sandoval, Mania Orand, and Robert M. Mason. “Characterizing Online Rumoring Behavior Using MultiDimensional Signatures.” Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing – CSCW ’15 (2015): 228-41. https://doi.org/10.1145/2675133.2675280. Accessed 24 Jan. 2022.

Kao, Jeff. “More than a Million Pro-Repeal Net Neutrality Comments were Likely Faked.” Hackernoon, November 23, 2017. https://hackernoon.com/more-than-a-million-pro-repeal-net-neutrality-comments-were-likely-faked-e9f0e3ed36a6. Accessed 24 Jan. 2022.

Kumar, Srijan, Robert West, and Jure Leskovec. “Disinformation on the Web.” In Proceedings of the 25th
International Conference on World Wide Web – WWW ’16, 591–602. New York: ACM Press, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1145/2872427.2883085. Accessed 24 Jan. 2022.

Shao, Chengcheng, Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia, Alessandro Flammini, and Filippo Menczer. “Hoaxy: A Platform for Tracking Online Misinformation.” In WWW ’16 Companion, 745–50, 2016. https://arxiv.org/abs/1603.01511. Accessed 24 Jan. 2022.

Toler, Aric. “Advanced Guide on Verifying Video Content.” Bellingcat, June 30, 2017. https://www.bellingcat.com/resources/how-tos/2017/06/30/advanced-guide-verifying-video-content/. Accessed 24 Jan. 2022.

Wright, Jordan and Olabode Anise. Don’t @ Me: Hunting Twitter Bots at Scale. Duo Labs, 2018. https://duo.com/assets/pdf/Duo-Labs-Dont-At-Me-Twitter-Bots.pdf. Accessed 24 Jan. 2022.

General (8)

Anderson, Janna and Lee Rainie. The Future of Truth and Misinformation Online. Pew Research Center, 2017. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2017/10/19/the-future-of-truth-and-misinformation-online/. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Bradshaw, Samantha and Philip N. Howard. “Troops, Trolls and Troublemakers: A Global Inventory of Organized Social Media Manipulation.” Samuel Woolley and Philip N. Howard, Eds. Working Paper 2017.12. Oxford, UK: Project on Computational Propaganda, 2017. https://comprop.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/troopstrolls-and-trouble-makers-a-global-inventory-oforganized-social-media-manipulation/. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Bradshaw, Samantha and Philip N. Howard. Challenging Truth and Trust: A Global Inventory of Organized Social Media Manipulation. Working Paper 2018.1. Oxford, UK: Project on Computational Propaganda. https://information-professionals.org/challenging-truth-and-trust-a-global-inventory-of-organized-social-media-manipulation/. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Jack, Caroline. Lexicon of Lies: Terms for Problematic Information. New York: Data & Society Research Institute, 2017. https://datasociety.net/pubs/oh/DataAndSociety_LexiconofLies.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Marwick, Alice and Rebecca Lewis. Media Manipulation and Disinformation Online. New York: Data & Society Research Institute, 2017. https://datasociety.net/output/media-manipulation-and-disinfo-online/. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Pament, James, et al. Countering Information Influence Activities: The State of the Art. Version 1.4. Department of Strategic Communication, Lund University, 2018. https://www.msb.se/RibData/Filer/pdf/28697.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Posetti, Julie and Alice Matthews. A Short Guide To The History Of ’Fake News’ And Disinformation. International Centre for Journalists, 2018. https://www.icfj.org/news/short-guide-history-fake-news-anddisinformation-new-icfj-learning-module. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Wardle, Claire and Hossein Derakhshan. Information Disorder: Toward an Interdisciplinary Framework for Research and Policy Making. Council of Europe, 2017. https://edoc.coe.int/en/media/7495-informationdisorder-toward-an-interdisciplinary-framework-forresearch-and-policy-making.html. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.

Measuring Reach (7)

Del Vicario, Michela, Alessandro Bessi, Fabiana Zollo, Fabio Petroni, Antonio Scala, and Guido Caldarelli.
“The Spreading of Misinformation Online.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113, no. 3 (2016): 554–559. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1517441113. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.

Gallacher, John D., Vlad Barash, Philip N. Howard, and John Kelly. “Junk News on Military Affairs and National Security: Social Media Disinformation Campaigns Against US Military Personnel and Veterans.” Data Memo 2017.9. Oxford, UK: Project on Computational Propaganda. https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.03572. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.

Guess, Andrew, Brendan Nyhan, and Jason Reifler. Selective Exposure to Misinformation: Evidence from
the Consumption of Fake News During the 2016 U. S. Presidential Campaign. (No prelo). January 9, 2018. https://www.dartmouth.edu/~nyhan/fake-news-2016.pdf. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.

Rushkoff, Douglas, David Pescovitz, and Jake Dunagan. The Biology of Disinformation: Memes, Media Viruses, and Cultural Inoculation. Institute for the Future, 2018. http://www.iftf.org/partner-with-iftf/research-labs/digital-intelligence-lab/biology-of-disinformation/. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.

Starbird, Kate. 2017. “Examining the Alternative Media Ecosystem through the Production of Alternative Narratives of Mass Shooting Events on Twitter.” In Eleventh International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media: 230–39. https://aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/ICWSM17/paper/view/15603. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.

Stewart, Leo G., Ahmer Arif, and Kate Starbird. 2018. “Examining Trolls and Polarization with a Retweet Network.” https://faculty.washington.edu/kstarbi/examining-trolls-polarization.pdf. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.

Suárez-Serrato Pablo, Margaret E. Roberts, Clayton A. Davis, and Filippo Menczer. “On the Influence of Social Bots in Online Protests.” In Social Informatics: 8th International Conference, SocInfo 2016, Bellevue, WA, USA, November 11-14, 2016, Proceedings, Part II, edited by Emma Spiro and Yong-Yeol Ahn. Springer, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47874-6_19. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.

Mitigation and Solutions (13)

Andrews, Cynthia A, Elodie S Fichet, Yuwei Ding, Emma S Spiro, and Kate Starbird. 2016. “Keeping Up with
the Tweet-Dashians: The Impact of `Official- Accounts on Online Rumoring.” In Proceedings of the 19th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing – CSCW ’16, 451–64. https://doi.org/10.1145/2818048.2819986. Accessed 28 Jan. 2022.

Boyd, Danah. “You Think You Want Media Literacy… Do You?” Points by Data & Society, March 9, 2018. https://points.datasociety.net/you-think-you-want-media-literacy-do-you-7cad6af18ec2. Accessed 28 Jan. 2022.

Bulger, Monica and Patrick Davison. “The Promises, Challenges, and Futures of Media Literacy.” New York: Data & Society Research Institute, 2018. https://digitalcommons.uri.edu/jmle/vol10/iss1/1/. Accessed 28 Jan. 2022.

Caplan, Robyn. “Content or Context Moderation? Artisanal, Community-Reliant, and Industrial Approaches”. New York: Data and Society, 2018. https://datasociety.net/output/content-or-context-moderation/. Accessed 28 Jan. 2022.

Caplan, Robyn, Lauren Hanson, and Joan Donovan. Dead Reckoning: Navigating Content Moderation After “Fake News.” New York: Data and Society, 2018. https://datasociety.net/pubs/oh/DataAndSociety_Dead_Reckoning_2018.pdf.

Donahoe, Eileen. “Protecting Democracy from Online Disinformation Requires Better Algorithms, Not Censorship.” Council on Foreign Relations, August 21, 2017. https://www.cfr.org/blog/protecting-democracy-online-disinformation-requires-better-algorithms-not-censorship. Accessed 31 Jan. 2022.

Funke, Daniel. “A Guide to Anti-Misinformation Actions Around the World.” Poynter, May 22, 2018. https://www.poynter.org/ifcn/anti-misinformation-actions/. Accessed 31 Jan. 2022.

Greenspon, Edward and Taylor Owen. “Democracy Divided: Countering Disinformation and Hate in the
Digital Public Sphere”. Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2018. https://ppforum.ca/publications/social-marketing-hate-speech-disinformation-democracy/. Accessed 31 Jan. 2022.

Kornbluh, Karen. “Could Europe’s New Data Protection Regulation Curb Online Disinformation?” Council on Foreign Relations, February 20, 2018. https://www.cfr.org/blog/could-europes-new-data-protection-regulation-curb-online-disinformation. Accessed 31 Jan. 2022.

Lucas, Edward and Peter Pomeranzev. “Winning the Information Wars. Washington, DC: Center for European Policy Analysis, 2016. https://cepa.ecms.pl/files/?id_plik=2715. Accessed 31 Jan. 2022.

Mihailidis, Paul and Samantha Viotty. “Spreadable Spectacle in Digital Culture: Civic Expression, Fake News, and the Role of Media Literacies in “Post-Fact” Society.” American Behavioral Scientist 61, no. 4 (April 2017): 441–454. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764217701217. Accessed 31 Jan. 2022.

Pennycook, Gordon and Rand, David G. “The Implied Truth Effect: Attaching Warnings to a Subset of Fake News Stories Increases Perceived Accuracy of Stories Without Warnings.” Working paper, December 10, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3035384. Accessed 31 Jan. 2022.

Wood, Thomas and Ethan Porter. “The Elusive Backfire Effect: Mass Attitudes’ Steadfast Factual Adherence.” Political Behavior 41, no. 1 (2019): 135-163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-018-9443-y. Accessed 28 Jan. 2022.

Political Science and International Relations (14)

Blank, Stephen. “Russian Information Warfare As Domestic Counterinsurgency.” American Foreign Policy Interests 35, no. 1 (2013): 31–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/10803920.2013.757946. Accessed 26 Jan. 2022.

Canadian Security Intelligence Service. WHO SAID WHAT? The Security Challenges of Modern Disinformation. Ottawa: CSIS, 2018. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/csis-scrs/documents/publications/disinformation_post-report_eng.pdf. Accessed 26 Jan. 2022.

Crilley, Rhys. “International Relations in the Age of ‘Post-Truth’ Politics.” International Affairs 94, no. 2 (2018): 417–425. https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iiy038. Accessed 26 Jan. 2022.

Farrell, Henry and Bruce Schneier. “Common-Knowledge Attacks on Democracy.” Berkman Klein
Center Research Publication No. 2018-7 (October 2018). http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3273111. Accessed 26 Jan. 2022.

Golovchenko, Yevgeniy, Mareike Hartmann, and Rebecca Adler-Nissen. “State, Media and Civil Society in
the Information Warfare Over Ukraine: Citizen Curators of Digital Disinformation.” International Affairs 94, no. 5 (September 2018): 975–994. https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iiy148. Accessed 26 Jan. 2022.

Hellman, Maria and Charlotte Wagnsson. “How Can European States Respond to Russian Information Warfare? An Analytical Framework.” European Security 26, no. 2 (2017): 153–170. https://doi.org/10.1080/09662839.2017.1294162. Accessed 26 Jan. 2022.

Lin, Herbert and Jaclyn Kerr. “On Cyber-Enabled Information/Influence Warfare and Manipulation.” In the Oxford Handbook of Cybersecurity. Oxford University Press: 2019. https://ssrn.com/
. Accessed 26 Jan. 2022.

Monaco, Nicholas J. “Computational Propaganda in Taiwan: Where Digital Democracy Meets Automated
Autocracy No. 2017.2.” Project on Computational Propaganda Working Paper No. 2017.2, Oxford, UK, 2017. http://comprop.oii.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/89/2017/06/Comprop-Taiwan-2.pdf. Accessed 26 Jan. 2022.

Nye, Joseph. “Protecting Democracy in an Era of Cyber Information War.” Governance in an Emerging World, iss. 318 (November 2018). https://www.belfercenter.org/sites/default/files/files/publication/ProtectingDemocracy.pdf. Accessed 26 Jan. 2022.

Nyst, Carly and Nicholas Monaco. Edited by Samuel C. Wooley. State-Sponsored Trolling: How Governments Are Deploying Disinformation as Part of Broader Digital Harassment Campaigns. Palo Alto: Institute for the Future, 2018. http://www.iftf.org/statesponsoredtrolling. Accessed 26 Jan. 2022.

Oates, Sarah. 2018. “When Media Worlds Collide: Using Media Model Theory to Understand How Russia
Spreads Disinformation in the United States.” Paper presented at the 2018 American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, September, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3238247. Accessed 26 Jan. 2022.

Prier, Jarred. “Commanding the Trend: Social Media as Information Warfare.” Strategic Studies Quarterly
11(Winter 2017): 50–85. http://www.airuniversity.af.mil/Portals/10/SSQ/documents/Volume-11_Issue-4/
. Accessed 26 Jan. 2022.

Share Lab. “Mapping and Quantifying Political Information Warfare.” Share Lab. October 26, 2016.
https://labs.rs/en/mapping-and-quantifying-political-information-warfare/. Accessed 26 Jan. 2022.

Way, Lucan Ahmad and Adam Casey. “Russia Has Been
Meddling in Foreign Elections for Decades. Has It Made a Difference?” The Washington Post, January 8, 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2018/01/05/russia-has-been-meddling-in-foreign-elections-for-decades-has-it-made-a-difference/. Accessed 26 Jan. 2022.

Social Media (8)

Alba, Davey. “How Duterte Used Facebook To Fuel the Philippine Drug War.” Buzzfeed News, September 4, 2018. https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/daveyalba/facebook-philippines-dutertes-drug-war. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Allcott, Hunt and Matthew Gentzkow. “Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 31, no. 2 (2017): 211–36. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.31.2.211. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Farkas, Johan, Jannick Schou, and Christina Neumayer. “Cloaked Facebook pages: Exploring fake Islamist propaganda in social media.” New Media & Society 20, no. 5 (May 2018): 1850–67. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444817707759. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Friggeri, Adrien, Lada Adamic, Dean Eckles, and Justin Cheng. 2014. “Rumor Cascades.” In Eighth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, 2014. http://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/ICWSM14/paper/download/8122/8110. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Lapowsky, Issie. “Parkland Conspiracies Overwhelm The Internet’s Broken Trending Tools.” Wired, February 21, 2018. https://www.wired.com/story/youtube-facebook-trending-tools-parkland-conspiracy. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Lewis, Paul. “’Fiction Is Outperforming Reality’: How YouTube’s Algorithm Distorts Truth.” The Guardian, February 2, 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/feb/02/how-youtubes-algorithm-distorts-truth. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Narayanan, Vidya, Vlad Barash, Bence Kollanyi, LisaMaria Neudert, and Philip N. Howard. Polarization, Partisanship and Junk News Consumption over Social Media in the US (Vol. 1). Oxford, UK: Project on Computational Propaganda, 2018. http://comprop.oii.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/93/2018/02/Polarization-Partisanship-JunkNews.pdf. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

Vosoughi, Soroush, Deb Roy, and Sinan Aral. “The Spread of True and False News Online.” Science 359, iss. 6380 (2018): 1146–1151. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aap9559. Accessed 18 Jan. 2022.

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