A clock is a timekeeping device that works by quantifying natural phenomena. A clock operates with its own mechanisms. This means that its muse is not required in order for it to function properly. This is in polar opposition to a sundial which requires the sun to function.[3, p.6]

1. A machine, consisting of wheels moved by weights, so constructed that by a uniform vibration of a pendulum, it measures time, and its divisions, hours, minutes and seconds, with great exactness. It indicates the hour by the stroke of a small hammer on a bell.”[1]
Webster’s Dictionary 1828

Types of Clocks

The following list was originally based primarily on [2] and [4].






Cuckoo[3, p.100]



Electronic Word

Equation[3, p.104]

Grandfather[3, p.92]


Hydrogen Maser

Longcase[3, p.96]

Longitude[3, p.119]


Multi Display

Pendulum[3, p.80]

Public Striking[3, p.73]


Shadow[5, p.15]

Spring-driven[3, p.92]

Star[5, p.15]


Tower[3, p.103]

Verge-and-foliet[3, p.73]

Water (Clepsydra)

Weight-driven[3, p.116]

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[1] – Accessed 5 Jan. 2021.

[2] – Accessed 5 Jan. 2021.

[3] – Mondschein, Ken, and Neal Stephenson. On Time: a History of Western Timekeeping. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2020. Accessed Jan. 2021.

[4] – Accessed 5 Jan. 2021.

[5] – E. J. Bickerman. “Chronology of the Ancient World” (1968). Accessed 30 Jan. 2021.

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