The Masoretic Text

“Most Jews and Protestants consider the Masoretic Text the authoritative Hebrew Bible (Protestants call it the Old Testament).” [1]

The Masoretic Text is commonly believed to have been written between the 7th and 10th centuries AD. The oldest surviving copies of this text have been dated to the 9th century AD. It is split up into three main parts; Torah, Nevi’im, and Ketuvim [1].

Each text listed below is listed by name, then attributed creation dates, then attributed surfacing from obscurity dates if applicable.

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Surviving Texts

Codex Orientales 4445, aka London Codex. 920-950 AD (by colophon). SO 16th century.

Codex Cairensis. 895 AD (by colophon), 11th century AD (by C-14).

Codex Babylonicus Petropolitanus. 916 AD. SO 19th century.

Aleppo Codex. 930 AD. SO 19th century.

Codex Leningradensis. 1008 AD. SO 19th century.

Michigan Codex. 10th century AD. SO 20th century.

Damascus Pentateuch. 10th century AD. SO 20th century.

(Lost) Codex Yerushalmi.

Codex Reuchlinanus. 1105 AD.

Ms. Eb. 448 of the Vatican Library, with Targum Onkelos. 11th-12th cc. AD.

Cloisters Hebrew Bible. 1300-1350 AD, before 1366.

Farhi Bible. 1366-1383 AD.

Erfurt Codices. E3, maybe 11th c.. E2, maybe 13th c.. E1, c.14th c..

Codex Jericho. 14th c..

Al-Ousta Codex. 14th c..

(Lost) Codex Ezra.

Lisbon Bible. 1483 AD.

Codex Sinai.

MS. de Rossi 782.

(Lost) Codex Sanbuki.

(Lost) Codex Great Mahzor.

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[1] –

[2] –

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