Should Statements

Should statements are a form of cognitive distortion. Should statements are statements which claim things should be a certain way of which they are not. This is a fallacy because the should statement implies that reality got it wrong and that the person making the should statement is correct.

Personally, I believe eliminating should statements from my rhetoric will result in statements which are more accurate and useful.

In the following section of this article, I provide an example of a should statement, followed by an explanation of how it is a should statement, and what else might be said instead of the should statement.


One example of a should statement is;

“We should go to the beach today.”

The above sentence is an example of a should statement because it implies that not going to the beach would be incorrect. In other words, not traveling to the beach would be wrong.

Instead of the above statement, more accurate statements are; “I want to swim and get some sunshine at the beach today.” or “Let’s go relax at the beach today.”

A double example is;

“I really shouldn’t have another egg roll… but I must.”

The above statement is a double example of a should statement. The first part implies having another egg roll would be wrong while the second part implies not having it would be wrong. This in itself is an internal contradiction in the statement, aside from the overall fallacy of implying there is a right or wrong course of action while eating an egg roll.

Instead of the above statement, more accurate statements are; “I have eaten 2 egg rolls already, I’m not sure I can eat another.” or “I’m full, but I’m going to eat another egg roll.”

The elimination of should statements from the rhetoric lead to a clearer picture of what the person is communicating about themselves and the world with which they are interacting.


Definition – according to

“Should statements – Patterns of thought which imply the way things “should” or “ought” to be rather than the actual situation the person is faced with, or having rigid rules which the person believes will “always apply” no matter what the circumstances are. Albert Ellis termed this “Musturbation”.”


The following linked article has some useful information on how to deal with avoiding “Should Statements”;…

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Appeal to Authority

What is an Appeal to Authority? 

One source claims; “Appeal to authority – (argumentum ad verecundiam) deductively fallacious; even legitimate authorities speaking on their areas of expertise may affirm a falsehood. However, if not using a deductive argument, a logical fallacy is only asserted when the source is not a legitimate expert on the topic at hand, or their conclusion(s) are in direct opposition to other expert consensus. Appeal to authority does not condone to agreeing to the argument.” **


Confirmation Bias

What is confirmation bias?

Confirmation bias is “the tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one’s preconceptions”*

In other words, confirmation bias is the distorting of facts to fit one’s already existing beliefs.


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What does confirmation bias look like?

In the following article, we read about how people can distort facts to fit their beliefs;

“In ‘Research in Psychology: Methods and Design’, C. James Goodwin gives a great example of confirmation bias as it applies to extrasensory perception:

“Persons believing in extrasensory perception (ESP) will keep close track of instances when they were ‘thinking about Mom, and then the phone rang and it was her!’ Yet they ignore the far more numerous times when (a) they were thinking about Mom and she didn’t call and (b) they weren’t thinking about Mom and she did call. They also fail to recognize that if they talk to Mom about every two weeks, their frequency of ‘thinking about Mom’ will increase near the end of the two-week-interval, thereby increasing the frequency of a ‘hit.”*


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How do we avoid confirmation bias?

Due to confirmation bias being a result of knowingly or unknowingly distorting facts to fit somewhere they don’t belong, it would be useful to practice identifying and eliminating distorting thought patterns in the objective of deterring this bias. So far, the Trivium Method is the best system of unbiased researching that I’ve discovered. The Rational Scientific Method is in close second. The two of them together seem to me to be a powerful force in the objective of eradicating bias and fallacy. 

“Avoiding confirmation bias starts with paying attention to how you interact with information.” *


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As well as discussing the above questions, here are some more;

Have you ever witnessed confirmation bias in someone else?

Have you ever witnessed confirmation bias within yourself?

How would you go about dealing with this bias?

Does this bias resemble any other biases or fallacies that you know of?

Chronological Snobbery

Chronological Snobbery – this is when a thesis is deemed incorrect because it was commonly held when something else, clearly false, was also commonly held.

Although this fallacy is not as common as some of the others, I have seen it in action on a number of occasions.

Example; “Why must we accept medieval art as having any value when it emerged from the same period in which people burned witches and believed in fairies?” – from

Semmelweis Effect

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What is the Semmelweis Effect?

The Semmelweis effect/reflex is a cognitive bias in which one rejects new information in favor of the information which one already possesses. 

We can find 3 definitions within the wikipedia article. 

“The Semmelweis reflex or “Semmelweis effect” is a metaphor for the reflex-like tendency to reject new evidence or new knowledge because it contradicts established norms, beliefs or paradigms.[1]” 
This is the definition under the first citation, which I found to be an interesting read for the portion that I reviewed 
The next definition is Timothy Leary’s definition of the Semmelweis reflex; “Mob behavior found among primates and larval hominids on undeveloped planets, in which a discovery of important scientific fact is punished.”. One may wish to note the errors in his definition, which can be discussed further in the comment section. 

The third and final definition is by Thomas Szasz. From the wiki: “In section 3 of the preface to the fiftieth anniversary edition of his book The Myth of Mental Illness, Thomas Szasz describes an early exposure to Semmelweis’s life and the reaction to his finding as giving him “a deep sense of the invincible social power of false truths”.[4]”

To reiterate what this effect is one more time, from – the Semmelweis Effect is “the tendency to reject new evidence that contradicts a paradigm.[46]”

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Why is the Semmelweis effect/reflex called what it is called?

We can read @ – that “Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-1865) discovered that child-bed fever mortality rates reduced ten-fold when doctors washed their hands between patients and, most particularly, after an autopsy. He proposed washing hands between patients as a good practice in 1861, although he was unable to provide a scientific explanation. His hand-washing suggestions were rejected by doctors of his time, interestingly also for non-scientific reasons. For instance, some doctors refused to believe that gen- tlemen’s hands could transmit disease. Semmelweis’s discovery was widely accepted only in the early 1900’s, nearly four decades after his death. Such a lack of acknowledgement of new knowledge is today known as the Semmelweis effect. A metaphor for a certain type of human behavior, the Semmelweis reflex-effect is characterized by rejection of a new knowledge because it contradicts entrenched norms, beliefs and paradigms2.”

For more on Semmelweis’ background, check out the info @

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How can we avoid this cognitive bias?

I would suggest perhaps not jumping to conclusions quickly upon hearing new information. When time allows, analyze situations to gain a clear understanding of what is happening before reacting to them 

All in all, remember that we all may fall prey to faulty thinking. Best to help each other out of it before any serious harm is caused by it.

Origins of Religions

This article is a brief introduction to the origins of the major world religions. This article is primarily based upon the findings presented in 5.5 of ‘How It Was In Reality’ (0). This article serves as a useful reference paper for a timeline of religions.

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A Concise Timeline of Religion

‘Ancestor Worship’ by Lauren Gary

The oldest form of religion is ancestral worship. This may be the only religion we know about which predates Ancient Christianity. Ancient Christianity was created and adopted during and around the time of Christ in the 12th century.

This Ancient Christianity flourished originally as the Royal Christianity and later as became known under two distinct branches; Royal and Apostolic. These two types of Christianity spread throughout the Great Empire. Ancient Christianity splintered in the 15th-16th centuries into the major religions that we know today; Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism, and Catholicism.

Orthodox Christianity

‘Byzantine Cross’

Orthodox Christianity likely resembles the original ancient Christianity of the 12th-14th centuries more than the rest of the other major religions. According to a 2010 Pew Research Center study (1), it is estimated that about 12% of Christians in 2010 were Orthodox, compared to an estimated 20% of Christians in 1910 as being Orthodox. Most of these Orthodox Christians between 1910 and 1920 lived in Europe.


‘Islamic Star and Crescent’

Islam in its early stages also remained similar to Ancient Christianity. Both Orthodox Christianity and Islam were originally highly ascetic, and today still are in some areas.


‘Buddhist Wheel of Law’

Buddhism is the main reflection that can be seen in countries throughout the Eastern nations. Hinduism also falls into the Eastern category.


‘Star of David’

Judaism was originally a form of the Royal Christianity. It can both found in the West and the East. However, the original Judaism went through drastic changes before obtaining the final form of which we see today.


‘Catholic Church Narrow Cross’

Catholicism stems from the original religion and was mainly in West. The ancient bacchanalian Greek and Roman gods represent the Catholic Church of the 1400s-1600s. One result of their behavior were the large outbreaks of disease across Western Europe. These were named venereal diseases after the Roman goddess of love Venus. Catholic, or Capholic, used to refer to the entire Empire, but throughout the 1500s-1600s, the use of this name shifted to refer only to Western Europe.

The Rest of the Religions

‘Transformative Art with Eben Pagan, Hans Walor, Android Jones, Zipporah Lomax and Michael Divine’

The rest of the religions splintered from these 5 main religions; Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism, and Catholicism.

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‘The Evolutionary Tree of Religion’ (4)

According to the Quora (3), there are now over 4,200 recognized religions across the world. According to ‘The Evolutionary Tree of Religion’ (4), all religion stems from animal worship. It claims that animism was the only religion from 10,000-100,000 year back. The ‘Tree’ shows Buddhism starting in 520BC, Islam starting in 620AD, Judaism starting in 950AD, Orthodox Christianity starting in 1054AD with Catholicism. These dates are largely based upon the dates established by the chronology which was compiled in the 1600s, which has shown to be highly erroneous.

The true origin of religions may be represented more accurately by the chart found in my primary resource. I have translated the chart into English so that the non-Russian reading English readers may quickly understand its contents.

Origin chart found @ (4)

As is seen above, the ancient Christianity is the original religion. The only known religion prior to that is the worship of ancestors. Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism, and Catholicism fracture off from the root Christianity, only acquiring their final forms after the start of the 1500s. These five religions, based upon the ancient Christianity, give way to many hundreds of which we see today.

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(0) –

(1) –

(2) –

(3) –

(4) –

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The Twelve Months

This article is a brief introduction to the months of the Gregorian calendar. This article is primarily based on the findings presented in Chapter 1.7 of ‘Tsar of the Slavs’ (0). This article begins with an introduction that includes a concise history of some calendars, the twelve zodiacs, and some various New Years Eve datings. This article’s main body contains a concise overview of the twelve months of the Gregorian year. This article ends with a summary of conclusions.

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Calendar History, Zodiacs, and New Years Eve

This section briefly covers the Roman, Julian, Gregorian (1), and Byzantine calendars. It also provides some astrological information. An important fact to keep in mind for the rest of this article is that the letters ‘J’ and ‘I’ both represented the same sound until 1524 when Gian Giorgio Trissino marked the two letters as having different sounds (48).

The ancient Roman calendar (2) began its year with the month of March and has 10 months in total. This calendar is commonly believed to have been used in “ancient” Rome prior to 46BC (3). It is then believed to have been replaced by the Julian Calendar (4), a calendar allegedly composed by Sosigenes of Alexandria (5). Another important calendar to cite is the Byzantine calendar, which began its year on the first of September (6). According to (3), the Byzantine calendar was the official calendar of the Holy Roman Empire until abolished in 1806 by Napoleon. It is upon the Julian calendar that the Gregorian calendar was built. To keep this article concise I do not discuss all the calendars which I have reviewed. Instead, I have provided links to some of the notable ones; (7), (8), (9), (10), (11). For a greater list of calendars, check (15). For information on the calendar that the Roman one is based on, check (12) and (17).

Concerning the origins of the astronomical zodiacs; it is believed that the twelve (sometimes thirteen) signs appeared sometime before 1,500BC (39). These signs are commonly considered to have been around for more than a thousand years before the events contained in the Biblical Gospels. It may concluded that they contain no Christian symbols within them. However, in (40), we find that the aforementioned common belief may be incorrect. The first half of the zodiac may represent the real events of the 12th century (which is when the Gospel events may have happened), while the second half of the zodiac may represent the real events of the 14th-15th centuries. The astronomical sky maps of the north and south were created in the 15th-16th centuries. The astrological zodiac signs are thus concluded to have been partially created around the close of the 12th century and partially created around the era of the 14th-15th centuries. I conclude that the zodiacs were finalized by the end of the 15th century, just before the creation of not only the sky maps, but the calendar of which many people know and use today.

Concerning the differences in New Years Day. Our source (29) claims that the Romans, Hindus, and other ancient cultures celebrated New Year’s Day around or on April 1. It also reports that most of Europe would celebrate New Year’s Day on March 25. April1-March25 fall within the tropical zodiac (30) dates for Ares. The sidereal zodiac dates place this celebration in Pisces. The tropical zodiac may likely be the one used in the Western sources while the sidereal zodiac may likely be the one used by traditional Vedic astrologers. The ancient Byzantine calendar would celebrate New Year’s Day on September 1st, which would fall under Virgo on the tropical zodiac and Leo on the sidereal zodiac. Thus, New Year’s Day in the West may fall under the House of Ares, Pisces, or Virgo. This may have significance which is discussed further on in this article.

Pope Gregory XIII’s ‘Inter gravissimas’ is the papal bull that decreed the Gregorian calendar in 1582 (28). According to the wiki, the primary author of the Gregorian calendar was Aloysius Lilius (13). However, it appears that there were significant modifications made to the calendar by the 16th century astronomer, Christopher Clavius (14), after Lilius had died. Among the reforms that accompanied the adoption of this calendar was the designation of New Years Day to be on January the first (3). During the time of Pope Gregory XIII’s reforms, the year in France had traditionally begun on the 1st of April. This may be related to the origin of April Fools’ Day. From the same source, we find a list of countries and the respective years that they adopted the Gregorian calendar. I have taken the liberty to simplify the text into a list;

People/Country; Year they adopted the Gregorian calendar
All of Catholic Europe; 1587
Denmark, the Protestant Netherlands, and the Protestant German States; 1699-1700
United Kingdom; 1752
Sweden; 1753
Switzerland; 1812
Japan; 1873
Egypt; 1875
most of Eastern Europe; 1912-1917
Russia; following the Soviet Revolution in 1918
Greece; 1923

To summarize; the Gregorian calendar was created in the second half of the 16th century and was adopted across the world between the 17th to 20th centuries. The Julian calendar has proven to be more difficult for me track. I may create a more in depth guide to the history of the calendars in the future, but for now, it does appear to me that both the Julian and the Gregorian calendars were both officially created in the 16th century.

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The Twelve Months

The main four sources which I will be referencing in this section are (0), (18), (19), and (20). I have included this notice to inform you I will not be including these numbers after every claim in this section. The claims are nonetheless mainly based upon the aforementioned references provided. The months are examined in chronological order starting with January and ending with December. The titles of the months will be in English and Russian. The information pertaining to each month is formatted with “common” beliefs that are followed by “new” ideas. An additional note to keep in mind is that the first eight months are considered to be named after gods and people, while the last four months are named after numerals (being Sept = 7, Octo = 8, etc…).


‘January’ – (YANVAR’/yanvar’), (21), (22)

January is commonly associated with the Roman god Janus (23). Another god that January has been associated with is the Roman goddess Juno (32). Janus is commonly associated with war and peace, beginnings and endings. He is also sometimes associated with Portunus. Juno is commonly depicted bearing weapons and a goatskin, which is understandable because she is considered to be protector of the state. Today’s scholars have suggested that the word ‘Janus’ may have origins in the Indo-European root “yana-“ (Sanskrit), pronounced ‘YAW-NUH’, or “yah-“ (Avestan), pronounced ‘YAW’. I think Juno’s wearing of the goatskin will be important for later comments.

The zodiac signs that span across January are Sagittarius, Capricorn, and Aquarius. These three signs are traditionally ruled by the planets of Jupiter and Saturn. They are represented respectively by the Centaur, the Goat, and the Water Bearer.

Typically, the etymology of January is traced to the Latin word ‘Januarius’. As mentioned previously, January was not the start of the year in the ancient Roman calendar; March was. Although this month is typically attributed to the Roman god Janus, the idea has been put forth (24) that this month actually has its origins in honoring John the Baptist. The linguistic root of Janus is almost identical to John.

The linguistic root of Juno is also worth mentioning, which is sometimes equated to concepts of youth. As can be found in the Biblical Gospels, the story of the birth of John is an important one, as well as the birth of Christ. This connection in my opinion is not as strong as the connection to the linguistics of Janus, but these themes are worth noting due to the paralells between the comparative story elements. Juno and John are both depicted in goatskin in enough instances for it to be a significant relation. Another noted connection between the two is their rank amongst their people. They are both held to be highly respected guardian type figures.

At (24) you may find the sign Aquarius listed under reflections of John the Baptist. This may be due to the story of him bearing the water for Christ’s baptism, which gave him the title of “John the Baptist”. At (49) you may find it mentioned that John the Baptist is considered as “the forerunner of Jesus Christ”. This may have something to do with January preceding February on the calendar.

January and February may not have always been in this specific order. According to (46), when the Romans decided to add January and February between December and March, they did so so that the months lined up chronologically in the following order; December, February, January, March. Thus, observing February before January. These two months are closely related, and not just by their positions on the calendar.


‘February’ – (FEVRAL’/fevral’), (25), (26)

February is commonly associated with the Roman festival ‘Februa’ (27). Februa was a ritual that involved washing and purifying. This festival is also closely related to ‘Lupercalia’ (33). This latter festival is in honor of Faun, but more importantly for our article here, it was in honor of the wolf who nursed Romulus and Remus. The two children of whom may be closely related to Jesus Christ (Romulus) and John the Baptist (Remus) (24).

Typically, the etymology is traced to the Latin word ‘februum’ (purification, expiatory offerings). The origin of the commonly accepted Latin root has sketchy origins, possibly Sabine. The English derived their version of the name from the Old French ‘Feverier’. One source reports that the Latin word refers to an Etruscan word that means ‘purging’. The same source claims that the Februa festival took place from the 13th-15th of this month. A quick astrological connection can be made between tropical and sidereal zodiacs shifting from Capricorn to Aquarius (The Goat to the Water Bearer) and Aquarius to Pisces (The Water Bearer to The Fish). As is discussed later under this section, February is covered under the zodiacs of Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. These three signs are traditionally ruled by the planets of Jupiter and Saturn.

Although this month is typically attributed to the Roman festival ‘Februa’, the idea has been put forth that this month actually has its origins in honoring Jesus Christ. This idea may be strengthened by the rituals of Februa and Lupercalia. Where Februa honors Christ specifically, Lupercalia honors the wolf, who is the mother (Mary) of Romulus and Remus. One more connection is the word ‘Februa’ to ‘Phoebes’/‘The Sun’ which is ‘Christ’. Stronger and more obvious connections may be made between the festival of purification and the role of Jesus Christ as the purifier of sins.

I add to this idea by drawing attention to January and February being considered together as two parts of one segment. January is often symbolized by Janus and Juno who in turn can be represented as respectively as ‘Water’ and ‘Goat’, in other words, a “sea-goat” (34). It may also be represented by the ‘Water-Bearer’ Aquarius. According to the tropical and sidereal zodiac dates; Capricorn spans from December23 – January20 and January16-February14. Aquarius spans from January21- February18 and February15 – March15, and Pisces spans from February19 – March20. We can safely say that the three zodiacs of Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces cover the entire months of January to February.

Are these zodiacal symbols Christian in origin? Could John the Baptist be partially reflected in the Houses of Capricorn and Aquarius? Could Jesus Christ be partially reflected in the House of Pisces? Potentially. There are parallels between John the Baptist and those two houses. There are also parallels between Jesus Christ and The Fish. Chances are you’ve seen the ‘Jesus Fish’ on a car bumper or two during your lifetime. Christ’s countless baptisms of others may also be an origin for the idea of ‘Christ in the Water’. It may be that these other events played a role in the creation of Jesus or John, but I maintain that it is more probably that the rest of these ideas have spawned out of Jesus and John, not the other way around.

January and February are the only two months that end in ‘-ary’. We have identified the root of January to potentially be from ‘Janus’, ‘Juno’, or ‘John’, and the root of February to potentially be from ‘Februa’, ‘Phoebes’, or ‘Christ’. But where does the suffix ‘-ary’ originate? Potentially it may be signifying ‘Month of Janus/Juno/John’/‘Month of Februa/Phoebes/Christ’. However, as we have noted, January and February are the only two months that end in the suffix ‘-ary’. Latin month is ‘mensis’.

I believe the suffix may be symbolizing ‘Mother Mary’. Where researchers before have not considered the potential Christian origin of these months due to popular beliefs, I posit the idea that January and February are the only two months that end in ‘ary’ because these two months are dedicated to the two children of the ‘Mother of God’. If this is so, then it would follow that January’s etymology can be traced to a primary concept of “John of Mary” and February’s etymology can be traced to a primary concept of “Christ of Mary”.

I suggest that these first two months were put in the front of the calendar with the knowledge that they represented Mary’s John and Christ, as these are three of the most important figures in the Gospels. However, in other regions of the world, March was the beginning of the calendar. If January and February may have Christian origins, what is to be said of March?


‘Ides of March’

‘March’ – (MART/marsh), (35), (36)

March is the first month of the Roman year and is commonly associated with the Roman god Mars (41). The zodiacs that overlap March are Aquarius, Pisces, and Ares. These three signs are traditionally ruled by the planets of Jupiter, Saturn, and Mars respectively. The Roman god Mars may share similarities to Etruscan Maris (37). Additional figures which March may be related to are Ares, Horus, Laran, Macha, Maher, Manyu, Maru, and Montu. These figures may be expanded upon in a future article. You may be wondering by now; “Who is Mars?”

Mars is the Roman god of war. Romulus and Remus are considered to be his sons. The festivals that were held in his name lasted through October. His Greek counterpart is Ares.

The etymology of March is commonly traced to the Latin ‘Martius’. Our source (0) proposes the idea that this month belongs not to Mars or Ares, but to Mother Mary. This idea seemed shaky to me at first, but upon looking deeper, I have found information that may strengthen its case.

During my research, I have arrived at the conclusion that March honors not only Mother Mary, but Father Joseph as well. It may be recognized that January, February, and March create a trinity that generally marks the beginning of the year. According to my analysis, these three months may be comprised in honor of John the Baptist, Jesus Christ, and Christ’s parents, Joseph and Mary. Thus making up the historically most important members of Christ’s family tree, in other words, the ‘royal’ family tree.

Drawing mainly on (42), we can see that Joseph is not only associated with the god Horus, but the god Horus is a reflection of Joseph. That is, Horus is inspired by Joseph. There may not be much here at first glance, but one may keep in mind that Horus and Ra are considered to have merged into one figure at one point in time. Here the connections may become more apparent. March is the first month to be under the rule of the planet Mars. Mars the god and Ares the god are considered to be counterparts. March may also be inspired by Joseph and Mary, or recorded differently as Mary and Joseph. The Egyptian form of Mary and Joseph have been recorded as Isis and Horus. I conclude that Ra/Horus may share a common root with Ares/Mars, that being Joseph.

The Etruscan Maris is of importance here as well. He is commonly depicted as an infant or child. He is considered the son of Hercle. He appears in scenes which show an immersion rite ensuring his immortality. He has also shown possible connections to the centaur Mares.

The Mother Mary also has records of her as an infant and a child (43). Could the story of the Etruscan Maris contain records of the Mother Mary that were distorted when the official historical cannons were created? I believe so. These are simply my opinions, so there may be no connection between Mother Mary and Etruscan Maris. However, it does appear to me that Maris contains elements from both the stories of Mary and Christ, as well as being a war god like Joseph. This is also the first month which shows any potential connections to Sagittarius, the centaur. Recall that the zodiacs which encompass January through March are Sagittarius through Ares. This places a centaur within the timeframe of the first three months of the year, which may be a trinity of months that honor the royal ancestors. I am not aware of this connection being drawn anywhere else, so I have included it here for my overall collection of comparative data.

Back to the origins of the name of the month of March. It is commonly believed to originate with the Roman god Mars. As I have shown above, the Roman god Mars may be significantly related to Ares, Maris, Ra, and Horus. These four figures share a common origin in Joseph. Mars may also be related to Maris, which above is shown to be a potential reflection of Mother Mary. To conclude; March may very well be named after the parents of Christ, being Mary and Joseph.

This concludes the first three months of the year which can be considered a complete segment which honors Christ’s family. The symbolism of the Centaur, the Goat, the Water-Bearer, the Fish, and the Ram compose the symbols which fall over these months and may be of Christian origin, which opposes today’s common opinion. I invite my readers to send me information of their own studies on these months to see what else surfaces, be it in support or against the concept of them being based on this royal family.


‘April’ – (APREL/aprel’), (44), (45)

April is commonly associated with the Roman god Venus. The etymology is typically traced to the Latin ‘Aprilis’. It arrives into English from the Latin through the Old French ‘Avril’ into the Middle English ‘Averil’ into the modern name. Arguments have been made that claim the name April (Aprilis/Aphrilis) has origins in the Greek Aphrodite or the Etruscan Apru. Our primary source posits the idea that the etymology may be traced backwards from April to the Old French ‘Avril’ to emperor Avrelian/Aurelian (47). The authors do not believe this ruler to be an actual person from around 1,800 years ago, but a reflection of a person who lived between the 13th-14th centuries. This month may be related to the Biblical Abraham. Root AVR = Abraham/Aurelian/April/Avril.

France was a country that began its year on April 1 when the Gregorian calendar was being introduced across the world. Could this have anything to do with it marking the beginning of honoring the next important figures of the royal lineage of Christ? It is by far not a common thought today to associate April with the Biblical Abraham, but this article may raise the thought’s commonality.

The Biblical Abraham is recorded as having a famous covenant with God. God promises Abraham that his family will be protected and they will inherit the Promised Land. There is a common theme of fertility and reproduction between Abraham and Venus.

The zodiac signs which fall over the month of April are Pisces, Ares, and Taurus. I want to keep this article short but do mention that while looking into all these characters, they all seemed to show many commonalities. This actually happened for all the months, which is why I may create separate articles for each month.

This month may owe its significance to the descendants of the first three months. These descendants would give birth to the famous historic figure Genghis Khan, of who supposedly claims 1 out of every 200 people as his descendant. This month goes hand-in-hand with may.


‘May’ – (MAI/may), (50), (51)

May is commonly associated with the Roman goddess Maiesta. The etymology may be traced through the Latin Maius to the Greek Maia. Our primary source suggests that this month may be truly traced to the wife of Aurelian. It is noted that Maia was considered the wife of Vulcan, which may be considered “Bel-Khan” or “White-Khan”. There may even be an etymological connection between Maia and Sarah (Sarai).

The zodiac signs that fall over the month of May are Ares, Taurus, and Gemini. The Ram and the Bull are obvious enough in their relation to the characters here, but what of the Twins? As may become clear, the Twins are the founding brothers of the Great Empire. The Twins are the offspring of the characters which Abraham and Sarah are based upon, potentially recorded as Isaac and Ishmael.

Thus, April and May go hand-in-hand as honoring the descendants of Christ and the progenitors of the future empire.


‘June’ (IYUN’/iyun’), (52), (53)

June is commonly associated with the Roman god Juno. The etymology may be traced to the Latin Junius. You may recall that January is also believed by some to be named after Juno. Perhaps from their pantheon of god they only worshiped a couple? My guess is probably that these are not based on the Roman and Greek gods as is commonly believed.

It may have already occurred to you that this month is the first month of the Twins. The first twin may be identified with Prester John, who has been shown in the New Chronology to be based upon the same person as Batu Khan. These names may be interchangeable. Batu Khan is the brother of Genghis Khan. In the Scaligerian chronology, Batu Khan has been erroneously identified as the grandson of Genghis Khan. The etymology may then be traced from June to potentially Batu Khan/Ivan Kalita/Prester John.

The zodiac signs which fall over the month of June are Taurus, Gemini, and Cancer. The obvious sign here is the Twins, which falls over the bulk of the month. This month is ruled by the planet Mercury. One may be made aware that the god Mercury is the son of Maia, associated with May. This connection is not made in the Scaligerian chronology because Hera and Maia are both contemporaries of the Bull, Zeus. Here though we may identify June and July as the twins, with April and May being their ancestors.


‘July’ (IYUL’/iyul’), (54), (55)

July is commonly associated with the Roman emperor Julius. The etymology may be traced to the Latin Julius (Caesar). The original name was supposedly quintilis, meaning “fifth month”.

I propose that the common associations may be wrong. Rather than a conceited emperor placing himself among the gods, I second the idea presented in the primary source. That being; July is the second half of the Twins, being represented by Genghis Khan, the brother of Batu Khan (June). June and July on the Scaligerian chronology are only close in name and spot on the calendar, the New Chronology may provide insight into the real reasons as to why the months are the way they are.

In the New Chronology, it is claimed that June and July are the Twins and descendants of April and May. In the Scaligerian chronology, these two months have no relationship. One factor that I’ve considered pertaining to July being marked as ’the fifth month’ is the Vatican being founded by Batu Khan, and perhaps some hostility between spectators of the (Twins) brothers had originally tried to wipe the importance of July’s relation to June. Later this would give rise to the common notion that the beginning ancestral months were for gods, and only here on the calendar do “real” people enter. Given the six previous months, and the one following month, I believe the New Chronology provides a more likely model of what may have happened in the past.

The zodiac signs that fall over July are Gemini, Cancer, and Leo. These houses are traditionally ruled by the planets Mercury, Moon, and Sun. One final note concerning the twins is the Biblical story of Isaac’s twins. One may also note the similarities between the Cancer’s sign as two identical symbols, aka twins. The crab (58) also shows close connections with the offspring of Zeus; two of which are identified in the New Chronology as John (June) and George (July).


‘Caesar Augustus’

‘August’ (AVGUST/avgusteyshiy), (56), (57)

August is commonly associated with the Roman emperor Augustus. The etymology may be traced to the same emperor, being Caesar Augustus. The zodiac signs which fall over August are Cancer, Leo, and Virgo. The tropical zodiac places Leo as the main sign over August.

Given that we have identified January, February, and March as potentially honoring the original royal family of Christ’s parents and brother, April and May as potentially honoring the descendants of Christ and the progenitors of the Great Empire’s two founding brothers, and June and July as these founding brothers, it may follow that there would be a trace of this Empire be honored in August.

The character suggested in the New Chronology for which August is honoring is Dmitry Donskoy (59). This person falls in the New Chronology timeline after the founding brothers. He is famous for his victory at the 1380 Battle of Kulikovo, where cannons and firearms were first introduced into warfare. This character has strong connections to images of fire and lions, the very concepts underlying the sign of Leo. He is also the character from which the mediaeval European king derive their origins.


‘September’ (SENTYABR’/sentyabr’)

This month begins the months that remain to be named after numbers. September is the 7th month on the calendar that begins in March. However, as you may recall from earlier, this is the most on which begins the ancient Byzantine calendar. Although this month is assigned a number, I propose the idea that this month honors Mother Mary. Virgo is the primary sign that falls over the month. Thus beginning the New Year by honoring Mother Mary. This in my opinion is not as strong as the previous arguments for each month, but worth noting nonetheless.


‘October’ (OKTYABR’/oktyabr’)

This month is the 8th month on the calendar that begins in March. This is supposedly when the war festivals end on the Roman calendar, and also happens to be primarily represented by the Scales (Libra). Potentially this is due to the connection between John the Baptist and Janus being the ringer in of peace and war. Again, I believe that these connections are looser than the initial ones.


‘November’ (NOYABR’/noyabr’)

This month is the 9th month on the calendar that begins in March. This is also the only other month mainly ruled by the planet Mars. Is it a coincide that the other two beginning months (Jan and Feb) are followed by a war god? September, October, and November may represent the same figures as January, February, and March. This is my idea though, and it may change as I learn more.


‘December’ (DEKABR’/dekabr’)

This month is the 10th month on the calendar that begins in March and the final month on the Gregorian calendar. This is by far the weirdest sign that seems to be on the zodiac, however it may be noted that the Centaur represents a teacher and hunter figure. Perhaps this is Christ? The Bow of Krishna (Christ)/ the Centaur’s Bow / Bow of Sagittarius? Potentially all coincidences. This may be expanded in a future article specifically on December.

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The twelve months of the Gregorian calendar are primarily based upon Biblical events. The first eight months represent the lineage of Christ. The last four months are named after numbers but still hold symbols which may be Christian in origin. The common beliefs of popular Roman and Greek origins appear to be based on the claims of people who could not have cross analyzed the data of which we can analyze today thanks to the internet, thus based on claims which were formed in an era lacking important information.

The months summarized are as follows;
January – John the Baptist
February – Jesus Christ
March – Mary and Joseph
April – Abraham
May – Sarai
June – Prester John
July – George the Victorious
August – Dmitry Donskoy
September – 7th
October – 8th
November – 9th
December – 10th

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The Bible In Fomenko’s New Chronology

This article is primarily based on the seven volume collection of ‘History: Science or Fiction?’ [0]. It establishes on the timeline of the New Chronology the dates of when the events of the Bible may have occurred and the dates of when the Bible itself may have been compiled. This article is concise and may be expanded upon in a later article.

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‘Ancient Bible’

The following is the collection of Biblical books that I have seen identified across the New Chronology books.

Books which contain information about the real events of the 11th-16th centuries:
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and Joshua.

Books which contain information about the real events of the 12th century:
Psalms, Isaiah, Zechariah, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.

Books which contain information about the real events of the 12th-16th centuries:
Judges, Samuel, Ruth, and Kings.

Books which contain information about the real events of the 15th century:
Daniel and Revelations (Apocalyptic books).
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy.[5]

Books which contains information about the real events of the 16th century:
Esther, Judith, and Nehemiah.

Although this list contains only 22 of the 66 books, these 22 comprise some of the most important books of the Bible. Four of these important books are the first books of the New Testament, the Gospels[1]; Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Five of these important books are the first books of the Old Testament, the Pentateuch [2]; Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Other important books to be emphasized are the books of Psalms, Isaiah, Daniel, and Revelations.

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The Bible itself is considered by modern scholarship to have been mainly established at the Council of Laodicea[3]. However, this assumption is based on a chronology that may be highly inaccurate. Based on the results in the New Chronology, the Bible may have really been mainly established at the Council of Trent[4].

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[5] – Accessed 30 Sept. 2020.

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Five Issues with Chronology

This article expands upon issues with Egyptian timelines, ancient sources, archeology, dendrochronology, and radiocarbon dating. The primary source for this article is [0]. This is a short article which serves as an introductory paper to issues with chronology.

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“The worst difficulty is the total absence of a reliable system of chronology. …the different systems of modern scholars lack any solid foundation and date…” – The International Cyclopaedia: A Compendium of Human Knowledge, Volume 5 [p.295-296]


The dating of Egyptian timelines is the first issue with chronology which is brought up by Fomenko.

Some of the German datings he gives for the reign of King Menes vary as follows:

Bunsen – 3,623 BC

Lepsius – 3,892 BC

Lauth – 4,157 BC

Unger – 5,613 BC

Boeckh [5] – 5,702 BC

As can be seen above, Menes’ reign has been dated by these men as recently as 3,623 BC (5,642 years ago) and as late as 5,702BC (7,721 years ago). This provides a 2,079 year difference in a timescale of now 7,721 years. These years account for 26.9 percent of the whole scale, being 2,079 years out of 7,721.

Is this difference the case amongst the datings of other scholars? The difference above pales in comparison to the following. Below is a list that contains the dates for Menes’ reign given by French scholars:

Palmer (6) – 2224 BC

Wilkinson (7) – 2320 BC

Andrzejewsky (8) – 2850 BC

Meyer – (9) 3180 BC

Chabas (10) – 4000 BC

Mariette (11) – 5004 BC

Champollion – 5867 BC

As can be seen above, Menes’ reign has been dated by these men as recently as 2,224BC (4,243 years ago) and as late as 5,867BC (7,886 years ago). This provides a 3,642 year margin in a timescale of now 7,886 years. This margin accounts for over 45 percent of the whole scale, being 2,224 years out of 7,721. The margin of leeway for when the reign may have been is hardly conclusive.

Conclusions; this is an obvious problem for chronology. The academically accepted dates may be based upon sketchy premises. The error margins are noticeably large for gaging a precise date.

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‘Cicero debating the nature of friendship’


The second issue with chronology that we discuss is the dating of “ancient” sources. These ‘post-“dark age”‘ sources may not be as legitimate as some believe. The majority of manuscripts appear during the Renaissance. In this section, we discuss the works of Tacitus (13), Cicero (14), and Vitruvius (15).

Hochart (16) and Ross (17) suggested in the second half of the 19th century that Poggio was the true author of Tacitus’ book, ‘History’. However, the author of (0) does note that they believe Tacitus’ book to be only a partial forgery. Poggio is famous in some circles for “rediscovering and recovering” a great number of manuscripts. Sadly, for those interested in the history of these manuscripts, there is a considerable lack of information regarding how Poggio had acquired them.

According to (0), there was an uprise of interest in Cicero in the 1400s. Reportedly, in 1420, Gasparino Barzizza had decided to “fill the gaps” of Cicero for the “sake of consequentiality”. Luckily for Barzizza, a “complete text of all the rhetorical works of Cicero” was discovered in an Italian town named Lodi around the same time that he had set out on his quest to complete the works of Cicero. It is reported that Barzizza and his students quickly obtained the manuscript, translated the ancient text, and produced a readable copy. This is the copy on which today’s copies are based. The reason why nobody has gone back to make new translations of the “complete text of all the rhetorical works of Cicero” may be due to the fact that the manuscript was returned to Lodi where it disappeared. There has been no trace of it since 1428.

It can may be assumed that when Barzizza set out on his quest to “fill the gaps” that the complete text had not yet been discovered. If we assume that the complete text was discovered in 1420, the same year Barzizza set out, then we may lay the claim that this newly discovered document was known for 8 years before it disappears back into the abyss to never be seen again. Could this manuscript have been a hoax that was created to give more legitimacy to Barzizza’s personal works? Perhaps it truly was a copy of Cicero’s complete texts, authored by someone who at one point had a complete collection of Cicero’s originals or copies? I may expand upon these questions in a later publication.

The last detail that I will mention pertaining to Cicero is about his name. The consonant root of ‘Cicero’ is ‘TsTsR’. It just so happens that the consonant root of the Arabic reading of ‘Barzizza’ is similar, being ‘TsTsRB’.

Vitruvius’ ‘De Architectura’ (20) was discovered in 1497. His book contains extremely precise astronomical information. In fact, there is a notable 15th century humanist who, in his writings, happens to sometimes word for word write the same exact words as Vitruvius had. This humanist is Leon Battista Alberti. He died over two decades prior to the discovery of Vitruvius’ document in 1497. Alberti is reportedly an architect who created a style very similar to the style of Vitruvius. Allegedly both of these men were authors and architects, but did both of these men actually exist? I may expand upon these questions in a later publication.

Conclusions; this is an obvious problem for chronology. The origins of allegedly ancient documents are sketchy. The three ancient authors identified above all share significant counterparts that lived in the 14th-15th centuries, which may actually be the “ancient authors” themselves.

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‘Vaital Temple’


The third issue with chronology that we discuss is archeology. The current methods are greatly based upon the chronology created by Scaliger (which has been shown to be highly inaccurate). This issue is somewhat self-explanatory but I will briefly expand upon it anyways;

From our primary source for this article (0), we find reports of a barrow that was examined and dated with precision to the epoch of the 9th-12th century. To the surprise of the examiners, scattered amongst the bones, they found coins from the 1800s. This may be due to the fact that sometimes the archeological methods are not as precise as some may believe them to be. A barrow from the 1800s was dated to the epoch between the 800s and 1100s, incorrectly dating it by 700 to 1000 years. This is a barrow that is less than 200 years old that has been dated to be 700 to 1000 years old because of methods that are based upon a faulty chronology.

Another example from our primary source is the excavation of a different barrows. The examiners were sure that they had been analyzing a barrow from the Bronze Age (22) until ceramics from the 1700s monkey-wrenched their find. These ceramics were found inside the barrow that were sealed inside along with everything else. It is reported that the only reason this barrow was dated to the Bronze Age is because it had an absence of Iron and steel artifacts. If we refer to the Near East Bronze Age datings from (22), we can see that the Bronze Age is considered to be between the years around 3300BC to 1200BC. This means that this borrow from the 1700s was misdated by around 2900 to 5000 years. This was a misdating of around 3000 years on a barrows less than 300 years old.

Conclusions; this is an obvious problem for chronology. The current archeological dating methods seem to be poorly designed. These very methods can sometimes give dates that are five to ten times older than the object being dated (300 year old barrow dated to 3000 years old).

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The fourth issue with chronology is dendrochronology. Dendrochronology (23) is a modern method of dating that claims to be able to independently date artifacts based on information from trees. This method, along with the archeological method, relies upon the faulty chronology of Scaliger. According to (23), the current span of dating into the past is a bit over 11,000 years. According to (0), which is arguably much more likely, the current span of dating is closer to around 1,000 years. There are many issues with dendrochronology identified in (24). This method is affected by many things of which we have no way of knowing about and the precision of the dating is dependent on the collations of the scale being used. In other words, it is sketchy.

Conclusion; this is an issue for chronology. Dendrochronology can be unreliable. It is dependent on a chronology which is established; where if dates of the chronology are moved, the scale of dendrochronology will move.

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The fifth and final issue with chronology which we discuss is radiocarbon dating. As with dendrochronology, radiocarbon dating is also subject to a plethora of influences of which we currently have no way of determining. Also similar to dendrochronology, radiocarbon dating can be unreliable for datings beyond 1000 years old. As with the archeological mishaps, radiocarbon dating can also lead to errors in dating exceed the age of the object by ten times. (0)

This first example is a castle that is known to have been built 738 years ago. After examining the results of a test upon a sample from this castle, it was determined that this castle was actually 7,370 years old. This is ten years shy of exactly 10 times the actual age of the building.

The second example is of seals that had just been shot and then radiocarbon dated. The seal which had just been shot by the hunters proved to be 1.300 years old, according to the radiocarbon dating methods. This is an exponentially greater age of dating than the actual age of the object. These same seals were mummified for thirty years and then related. This time they proved to be 4,600 years old. This is well over ten times older than the actual age of the animals. The thirty year difference in dating is equivalent to 3,300 years in the results, again, well over 10 times the actual time that has passed.

Conclusion; this is an issue for chronology. Radiocarbon dating can be unreliable. This method, along with other methods, are sometimes dependent upon a chronology which has already been established.

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Egyptian timelines, ancient sources, archeology, dendrochronology, and radiocarbon dating all can present issues in establishing chronology.

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[0] – History: Fiction or Science Vol. 1

[1] – The International Cyclopaedia: A Compendium of Human Knowledge, Volume 5

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New Chronology Zodiac List

This article contains a list of zodiacs which have been analyzed in Fomenko’s New Chronology. The zodiacs are ordered based on the dates that they allegedly reveal. If the zodiac’s abbreviation is followed by two ‘*’, this means that two dates are available for that specific zodiac. If the zodiac’s abbreviation is followed by three ‘*’, this means that three dates are available for that specific zodiac. The discoverers of these dates have noted which dates are more likely on some of the multiples, some have been marked accordingly. All dates are AD. There is an alphabetical key that names the zodiacs in the second part of this article. Links to expanded articles are attached to the abbreviations. An abbreviation with ‘!’ after it means that there was no abbreviation provided so I created one for it.

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SP** - August 14-16, 969

SN - August 14-16, 1007

MT - August 14-16, 1007

MZ! - 1007

RC** - April 15-16, 1146

SX - June 17-18, 1148

RD - June 16, 1148

AE - 1151 

RG - May 17-28, 1166 

DL - April 22-26, 1168

OU - September 5-8, 1182 

DR - March 20, 1185

YT - September 15, 1186

MB - July 29-August 15, 1200

SP** - August 5-7, 1206

LK - September 14, 1221

P1*** - August 5, 1227 for the outer room

ZA! - August 28, 1228 

AV - May 15-16, 1230

P2*** - March 24-25, 1240 AD for the inner room

AN - February 9-10, 1268 

GA - December 8, 1284

NB** - January 31-February 1, 1285

RS** - February 4-5, 1289; most likely 

KZ - May 6-8, 1308

RC** - April 16, 1325; most likely 

NB** - January 29-31, 1345

EB - March 31-April 3, 1394

EM - May 6-8, 1404

RP** - October 14-16 1405 

FN - May 19, 1421

P1*** - August 10, 1430 for outer room 

DZ! - April 12-15, 1477

P2*** - April 17, 1477

AP! - October 1, 1486

BL - March 16, 1495

GP - November 17-21, 1513 

CN - February 3-4, 1524

VP - February 5-6, 1524

MK - February 10, 1524

PD - March 7, 1524

VP - March 7, 1524

PG - February 9, 1526

DP - February 28, or March 1, 1546 

RS** - February 20-21, 1586 AD

KL - August 30-September 1, 1624

VA - August 31, 1624

LV - June 12-17, old style 1638

OL*** - August 1-2, 1640

VG - December 21, 1656, or December 31, 1656

FS - June 24, old style 1661

RZ - December 8-9, old style 1664

P1*** - August 2, 1667 for outer room

ZP - June 24-30, old style 1670

FR - May 19, old style 1680

FT - October 15, old style 1686 

OL*** - August 2 or August 29-30, 1700 - August 2, 1700 more likely 

P2*** - April 2, 1714 for inner room

KT - March 6, 1725 

FA - June 5, old style 1741 

FZ - July 3-4, old style 1741

RP** - April 23-25, old style 1781

MP** - 1785

MP** - August 11-12, 1843, more likely 

BRb*** - October 7, 1841

BRc*** - February 15, 1853

BRa*** - November 18, 1861

OL*** - June 27, 1877


The zodiacs listed alphabetically:

AE – of Christ

AN – lower Athribian

AP! – Biblical Book of Apocalypse

AV – upper Athribian

BG – Zodiac of Astronomy in the chambers of Pope Alexander Borgia

BL – Bayeux Tapestry

BR – Bruges’ Zodiac

CN – painting of the second Tiburtine room of Villa d’Este

DL – Long Dendera

DP – of Henry II and Diana Poitier

DR – Round Dendera

DZ! – Dante’s Zodiac

EB – Big Church of Esna

EM – Small Church of Esna

FA – of Jove on the carved stone

FN – of Phaeton

FR, FS, FT- of the Scythian chamber of dukes D’Este in Ferrara, in Italy

FZ – of Falconetto from Mantua

GA – of Gemma Augustus

GP – of Heracles

KL – in the portrait of Johann Kleberger by Dürer

KT – of grandson of the Yellow imperator, Xian-Yuan-Shi

KZ – church in Herment

LK – Leo of Commagene

LV – of Louvre

MB – Zodiac of Olympus

MK – in the picture of Carlo Maratta “Apollo chasing Daphne”

MP – mosaics of Raphael in chapel of Chigi of the church of Maria del Popolo in Rome

MT – Metternich stela

MZ! – Zodiac of Mithras

NB – “with dressed Nut”

OL – of Olympians in the villa of Barbaro in Maser

OU – Tomb of Ramses VII in Thebes

PD – of a mediaeval baptistery in Padua

PG – of Ivan the Terrible

P1+P2 – Tomb of Petosiris

RC – Tomb of Ramses IV

RD – Tomb of Ramses IX

RG – Copenhagen golden horn

RP – from the Chamber of Court in Padua

RS – Tomb of Ramses VI

RZ – Zodiac of Marcus Aurelius

SN – Tomb of Senenmut

SP – Tomb of Seti I

SX – Second zodiac of Senenmut

VA – in the hall of Cupid and Psyche

 VG – on the ceiling of the hall of Galatea

VP – of Alexander the Great and Roxanne in the hall of Prospect

YT – of the ascension of the Virgin

ZA! – Zodiac of Astronomy

ZP – on the ceiling of the Hall of Pontifexes in Vatican


Below are the books about the above datings followed by a list of the zodiacs they contain in them. There are 55 total.

The New Chronology of Egypt (2007): DL, DR, EB, EM, AV+AN, BR, OU, P1+P2, SP, SN, KZ, RS, RC. (15 total)

Ancient Zodiacs of Egypt and Europe (2009): MT, NB, RZ, LV, LK, MZ!, BL, RG. (8 total)

Russian and Italian Zodiacs (2009): SX, RD, AE, PG, FA, GA, DP, PD, ZA!, FZ, FR, FS, FT, RP, GP. (15 total)

Number of the Beast (2009): AP!

Vatican (2010): BG, OL, MP, KT. (4 total)

Divine Comedy on the Eve of the World’s End (2012): DZ!

Dr. Faust (2014): VZ

Roksolana (2019): VG, VA, VP, MK, CN, KL, YC, FN, GPR, MB. (10 total)

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