List of Sumerian Documents

MS 2950

This article establishes the names of known Sumerian documents. As far as I can tell, all translations (and potential discoveries) take place after 1900AD. There are currently 394 named documents on the list.

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Ancient Literary Catalogues (13 total)

1 – Ur III (2 total)

(N1) – Ur III catalogue from Nibru
(Y1) – Ur III catalogue at Yale

2 – Old Babylonian (11 total)

(N2) – 0.2.01 OB catalogue from Nibru
(L) – 0.2.02 OB catalogue in the Louvre
(U1) – 0.2.03 OB catalogue from Urim
(U2) – 0.2.04 OB catalogue from Urim
(U3) – 0.2.05 OB catalogue from Urim
(N3) – 0.2.06 OB catalogue from Nibru
(B1) – 0.2.07 OB catalogue possibly from Zimbir
(N4) – 0.2.08 OB catalogue from Nibru
(B4) – 0.2.11 OB catalogue at Andrews University
(Y2) – 0.2.12 OB catalogue at Yale
(N6) – 0.2.13 OB catalogue from Nibru

Narrative and Mythological Compositions (36 total)

1 – Narratives Featuring Deities (26 total);

Enki (4 total)
1.1.1 Enki and Ninhursaga
1.1.2 Enki and Ninmah
1.1.3 Enki and the world order
1.1.4 Enki’s journey to Nibru

Enlil (2 total)
1.2.1 Enlil and Ninlil
1.2.2 Enlil and Sud

Inana (5 total)
1.3.1 Inana and Enki
1.3.2 Inana and Ebih
1.3.3 Inana and Su-kale-tuda
1.3.4 Inana and Gudam
1.3.5 Inana and An

Inana and Dumuzid (5 total)
1.4.1 Inana’s descent to the nether world Dumuzid and Gestin-ana Dumuzid and his sisters
1.4.3 Dumuzid’s dream
1.4.4 Inana and Bilulu: an ulila to Inana

Nanna-Suen (1 total)
1.5.1 Nanna-Suen’s journey to Nibru

Ninurta (3 total)
1.6.1 Ninurta’s return to Nibru: a sir-gida to Ninurta
1.6.2 Ninurta’s exploits: a sir-sud (?) to Ninurta
1.6.3 Ninurta and the turtle

Other deities (6 total)
1.7.1 The marriage of Martu
1.7.3 Ningiszida’s journey to the nether world
1.7.4 The Flood story
1.7.6 How grain came to Sumer
1.7.7 The šumunda grass
1.7.8 Pabilsag’s journey to Nibru

2 – Narratives Featuring Heroes (10 total);

Gilgameš (6 total); Gilgameš and Aga Gilgameš and the bull of heaven The death of Gilgameš Gilgameš, Enkidu, and the nether world Gilgameš and Huwawa (Version A) Gilgameš and Huwawa (Version B)

Lugalbanda and Enmerkar (4 total); Lugalbanda in the mountain cave Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta Enmerkar and En-suhgir-ana

Compositions with a Historical Background (12 total)

1 – King Lists and Other Compositions (7 total)

2.1.1 The Sumerian King List
2.1.2 The Rulers of Lagaš
2.1.3 The History of the Tummal
2.1.4 Sargon and Ur-Zababa
2.1.5 The Cursing of Agade
2.1.6 The Victory of Utu-hegal
2.1.7 The Building of Ningirsu’s Temple (Gudea, Cylinders A and B)

2 – City Laments (5 total)

2.2.2 The lament for Urim
2.2.3 The lament for Sumer and Urim
2.2.4 The lament for Nibru
2.2.5 The lament for Unug
2.2.6 The lament for Eridug

Royal Praise Poetry (127 total)

1 – Lagaš (2 total)

Luma (1 total)

2.3.1 An adab to Bau for Luma (Luma A)

Gudea (1 total)

2.3.2 A tigi to Bau for Gudea (Gudea A)

2 – Third Dynasty of Ur (44 total)

Ur-Namma (9 total) The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A) A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B) A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma C) Ur-Namma the canal-digger (Ur-Namma D) A šir-namšub (?) to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma E) A šir-namšub to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma F) A balbale to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma G) A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma H)
2.4.1.a A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma I)

Šulgi (21 total) A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A) A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B) A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C) A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D) A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi E) An adab to Enlil for Šulgi (Šulgi G) A tigi (?) for Šulgi (Šulgi L) A lullaby for a son of Šulgi (Šulgi N) A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi O) A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi P) An adab (?) to Utu for Šulgi (Šulgi Q) Šulgi and Ninlil’s barge: a tigi (?) to Ninlil (Šulgi R) A tigi to Ninurta for Šulgi (Šulgi T) An adab (?) to Nergal for Šulgi (?) (Šulgi U) A dedication of a statue (Šulgi V) A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi W) A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi X) A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi Y) A love song of Šulgi (Šulgi Z)
2.4.2.a A song of Šulgi
2.4.2.b A praise poem of Šulgi

Amar-Suena (1 total) Amar-Suena and Enki’s temple (Amar-Suena A)

Šu-Suen (8 total) A balbale to Bau for Šu-Suen (Šu-Suen A) A balbale to Inana for Šu-Suen (Šu-Suen B) A balbale to Inana for Šu-Suen (Šu-Suen C) A tigi (?) to Ninurta for Šu-Suen (Šu-Suen D) An adab to An for Šu-Suen (Šu-Suen E) An adab (?) to Suen for Šu-Suen (Šu-Suen F) A praise poem of Šu-Suen (Šu-Suen I)
2.4.4.a A hymn for Šu-Suen

Ibbi-Suen (5 total) A tigi to Suen for Ibbi-Suen (Ibbi-Suen A) A šir-namgala to Mešlamta-ea and Lugal-era for Ibbi-Suen (Ibbi-Suen B) An adab to Suen for Ibbi-Suen C) A ululumama to Suen for Ibbi-Suen (Ibbi-Suen D) A hymn to Suen for Ibbi-Suen (Ibbi-Suen E)

3 – Isin Dynasty (45 total)

Išbi-Erra (3 total) Išbi-Erra and Kindattu (Išbi-Erra B) A tigi to Nanaya for Išbi-Erra (Išbi-Erra C) A hymn to Ninisina for Išbi-Erra (Išbi-Erra D)

Šu-ilīšu (2 total) An adab to Nergal for Šu-ilīšu (Šu-ilīšu A) An adab for Šu-ilīšu (Šu-ilīšu C)

Iddin-Dagan (4 total) A šir-namursaga to Ninsiana for Iddin-Dagan (Iddin-Dagan A) A praise poem of Iddin-Dagan (Iddin-Dagan B) An adab to Ningublaga for Iddin-Dagan (Iddin-Dagan C) A šir-namerima (?) for Iddin-Dagan (Iddin-Dagan D)

Išme-Dagan (21 total) A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan A + V) An adab to Bau for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan B) A hymn to Nibru and Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan C) An adab (?) to Enki for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan D) A balbale to Enko for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan E) An adab to Enlil for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan H) Išme-Dagan and Enlil’s chariot: a tigi to Enlil (Išme-Dagan I) A love song of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan J) A hymn to Inana for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan K) An adab to Nanna for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan M) A tigi (?) to Ninurta for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan O) An adab (?) to Ninurta for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan P) An adab (?) to Nuska for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan Q) A dedication of a statue (Išme-Dagan S) An adab to Dagan (?) for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan U) A hymn to Nibru and Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan W) A hymn to Enki (?) for Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan X) A praise poem of Išme-Dagan (Išme-Dagan AA) A hymn to Ninurta for Išme-Dagan
2.5.4.a A hymn to Inana for Išme-Dagan
2.5.4.b A hymn to Enki for Išme-Dagan

Lipit-Eštar (6 total) A praise poem of Lipit-Eštar (Lipit-Eštar A) A praise poem of Lipit-Eštar (Lipit-Eštar B) An adab to An for Lipit-Eštar (Lipit-Eštar C) An adab to Ninurta for Lipit-Eštar (Lipit-Eštar D) A šir-namgala to Ninisina for Lipit-Eštar (Lipit-Eštar E) An ua-di to Inana for Lipit-Eštar (Lipit-Eštar H)

Ur-Ninurta (6 total) A sir-namgala (?) to Inana for Ur-Ninurta (Ur-Ninurta A) A tigi to Enki for Ur-Ninurta (Ur-Ninurta B) An adab to Ninurta for Ur-Ninurta (Ur-Ninurta C) An adab to Inana for Ur-Ninurta (Ur-Ninurta D) An adab to An for Ur-Ninurta (Ur-Ninurta E) An adab (?) to Iškur for Ur-Ninurta (Ur-Ninurta F)

Būr-Suen (2 total) An adab to Ninurta for Būr-Suen (Būr-Suen A) An adab to Enlil for Būr-Suen (Būr-Suen B)

Enlil-bāni (1 total) A praise poem of Enlil-bāni (Enlil-bāni A)

4 – Larsa Dynasty (14 total)

Gungunum (2 total) An adab to Nanna for Gungunum (Gungunum A)
2.6.2.a A hymn to Nanna for Gungunum (Gungunum B)

Sîn-iddinam (2 total) A praise poem of Sîn-iddinam (Sîn-iddinam A) Sîn-iddinam and Iškur (Sîn-iddinam E)

Sîn-iqīšam (1 total) A hymn to Numušda for Sîn-iqīšam (Sîn-iqīšam A)

Rīm-Sîn (9 total) A prayer to Enlil for Rīm-Sîn (Rīm-Sîn A) A hymn to Haia for Rīm-Sîn (Rīm-Sîn B) A prayer to An for Rīm-Sîn (Rīm-Sîn C) A prayer to Nanna for Rīm-Sîn (Rīm-Sîn D) A prayer to Nanna for Rīm-Sîn (Rīm-Sîn E) A prayer to Nanna for Rīm-Sîn (Rīm-Sîn F) A prayer to Nanna for Rīm-Sîn (Rīm-Sîn G) An adab to Inana for Rīm-Sîn (Rīm-Sîn H)
2.6.9.a An excerpt from a prayer for Rīm-Sîn

5 – Uruk (1 total)

Anam (1 total) A praise poem of Anam (Anam A)

6 – First Dynasty of Babylon (17 total)

Hammu-rābi (6 total) A praise poem of Hammu-rābi (Hammu-rābi A) A prayer to Enki for Hammu-rābi (Hammu-rābi B) A praise poem of Hammu-rābi (Hammu-rābi C) A prayer to Asarluhi for Hammu-rābi (Hammu-rābi D) A prayer for Hammu-rābi (Hammu-rābi E) A prayer to Inana for Hammu-rābi (Hammu-rābi F)

Samsu-iluna (8 total) Samsu-iluna and Inana (Samsu-iluna A) A prayer for Samsu-iluna (Samsu-iluna B) A prayer for Samsu-iluna (Samsu-iluna C) A prayer for Samsu-iluna (Samsu-iluna D) A prayer for Samsu-iluna (Samsu-iluna E) A hymn to Enlil for Samsu-iluna (Samsu-iluna F) A prayer for Samsu-iluna (Samsu-iluna G) A hymn to Enlil for Samsu-iluna (Samsu-iluna H)

Abī-ešuh (3 total) A hymn to Mardul for Abī-Ešuh (Abī-Ešuh A)
2.8.5.a A praise poem of Abī-Ešuh (Abī-Ešuh B)
2.8.5.b A hymn to Marduk for a king

7 – Praise Poetry for Unknown Rulers (4 total)

7.1 – Hymns (1 total)

A Hymn to Marduk for a King

7.2 – Fragmentary Compositions (3 total)

2.99.b A fragment of a royal poem
2.99.c A fragment of a royal poem
2.99.d An excerpt from a royal poem (?)

Literary Letters and Letter-Prayers (43)

1 – Royal correspondence (26 total)

Third Dynasty of Ur (21 total)

3.1.01 Letter from Aradĝu to Šulgi about Apillaša
3.1.02 Letter from Šulgi to Aradĝu about Apillaša
3.1.03 Letter from Aradĝu to Šulgi about irrigation work
3.1.04 Letter from Aradĝu to Šulgi about the country
3.1.05 Letter from Aradĝu to Šulgi about Aba-indasa’s missing troops
3.1.06 Letter from Aradĝu to Šulgi about the fortress Igi-ḫursaĝa Letter from Šulgi to Aradĝu about Aba-indasa’s letter
3.1.07 Letter from Puzur-Šulgi to Šulgi about the advance of the enemy
3.1.08 Letter from Šulgi to Puzur-Šulgi about the fortress Igi-ḫursaĝa
3.1.10 Letter from Šulgi to Puzur-Šulgi about waterways
3.1.11 Letter from Aradĝu (?) to Šulgi about bandits and Apillaša Letter from Ur-DUN to Šulgi about Apillaša Letter from Šulgi (?) to Aradĝu about troops Letter from Šulgi to Išbi-Erra about the purchase of grain
3.1.15 Letter from Šarrum-bāni to Šu-Suen about keeping the Martu at bay
3.1.16 Letter from Šu-Suen to Šarrum-bāni about digging a trench
3.1.17 Letter from Išbi-Erra to Ibbi-Suen about the purchase of grain
3.1.18 Letter from Ibbi-Suen to Išbi-Erra about his bad conduct
3.1.19 Letter from Puzur-Šulgi to Ibbi-Suen about Išbi-Erra’s claim on Isin
3.1.20 Letter from Ibbi-Suen to Puzur-Šulgi hoping for Išbi-Erra’s downfall
3.1.21 Letter from Aba-indasa to Šulgi about his neglect:

Isin, Larsa, and other dynasties (5 total)

3.2.01 Letter from Sîn-illat to Iddin-Dagan about confronting the Martu
3.2.02 Letter from Iddin-Dagan to Sîn-illat about the troops
3.2.03 Letter from Nanna-ki-aĝ to Lipit-Eštar about Gungunum’s troops
3.2.04 Letter from Lipit-Eštar to Nanna-ki-aĝ about driving away the enemy
3.2.05 Letter from Sîn-iddinam to the god Utu

2 – Other letters and letter-prayers (17 total)

3.3.01 Letter from Ur-saga to a king fearing the loss of his father’s household
3.3.02 Letter from Lugal-nesaĝe to a king radiant as the moon
3.3.03 Letter from Lugal-nesaĝe to a king radiant as the sun
3.3.04 Letter from Ur-Enlila to a governor and temple administrator
3.3.05 Letter from a governor and temple administrator to a king
3.3.06 Letter from Aba-taḫ-lugalĝa to his brothers
3.3.07 Letter from Ugubi to his mother
3.3.08 Letter from Šamaš-ṭāb to Ilak-ni’id
3.3.09 Letter from Lugal-nesaĝe to Enlil-massu
3.3.10 Letter from Inanaka to the goddess Nintinuga
3.3.11 Letter from Inim-Inana to Enlil-massu
3.3.12 Letter from Inim-Inana to Lugal-ibila
3.3.20 Letter from Gudea to his personal deity
3.3.21 Letter from the scribe Nanna-manšum to the goddess Ninisina
3.3.22 Letter from X to the god Nanna
3.3.27 Letter from Inim-Enlila to a king
3.3.39 Letter from Kug-Nanna to the god Ninšubur

Hymns and Cult Songs (107)

1 – Hymns addressed to deities (104)

Asarluḫi (1 total)

4.01.1 A hymn to Asarluḫi (Asarluḫi A)

Bau (1 total)

4.02.1 A hymn to Bau’s beneficent protective goddess (Bau A)

Damgalnuna (1 total)

4.03.1 A šir-šag-ḫula to Damgalnuna (Damgalnuna A)

Enlil (1 total)

4.05.1 Enlil in the E-kur (Enlil A)

Hendursaga (1 total)

4.06.1 A hymn to Ḫendursaĝa (Ḫendursaĝa A)

Inana (10 total)

4.07.1 A balbale to Inana (Inana A)
4.07.2 The exaltation of Inana (Inana B)
4.07.3 A hymn to Inana (Inana C)
4.07.4 A hymn to Inana as Ninegala (Inana D)
4.07.5 A tigi to Inana (Inana E)
4.07.6 A balbale (?) to Inana (Inana F)
4.07.7 A šir-namšub to Inana (Inana G)
4.07.8 A balbale to Inana as Nanaya (Inana H)
4.07.9 A šir-namšub to Inana (Inana I)
4.07.a A hymn to Inana

Inana and Dumuzid (27 total)

4.08.01 A balbale to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana A)
4.08.02 A balbale to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana B)
4.08.03 A balbale to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana C)
4.08.04 A balbale to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana D)
4.08.05 The song of the lettuce: a balbale to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana E)
4.08.06 A balbale to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana F)
4.08.07 A balbale to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana G)
4.08.08 A tigi to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana H)
4.08.09 A kunĝar to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana I)
4.08.10 A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana J)
4.08.12 A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana L)
4.08.13 A šir-namšub to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana M)
4.08.15 A balbale to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana O)
4.08.16 A balbale (?) to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana P)
4.08.18 A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana R)
4.08.20 A kunĝar to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana T)
4.08.22 A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana V)
4.08.23 A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana W)
4.08.25 A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana Y)
4.08.26 A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana Z)
4.08.28 A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana B1)
4.08.29 A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana C1)
4.08.30 A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana D1)
4.08.31 A balbale to Inana (Dumuzid-Inana E1)
4.08.32 A song of Inana and Dumuzid (Dumuzid-Inana F1)
4.08.33 Dumuzid and Enkimdu
4.08.a A balbale to Inana

Martu (2 total)

4.12.1 A šir-gida to Martu (Martu A)
4.12.2 A hymn to Martu (Martu B)

Nanna (19 total)

4.13.01 A balbale to Suen (Nanna A)
4.13.02 A balbale to Nanna (Nanna B)
4.13.03 A balbale to Nanna (Nanna C)
4.13.04 A balbale to Nanna (Nanna D)
4.13.05 A hymn to Nanna (Nanna E)
4.13.06 The herds of Nanna (Nanna F)
4.13.07 A hymn to Nanna (Nanna G)
4.13.08 An adab to Nanna (Nanna H)
4.13.09 A tigi to Suen (Nanna I)
4.13.10 An ululumama to Nanna (Nanna J)
4.13.11 A šir-namšub to Suen (Nanna K)
4.13.12 A šir-namgala to Nanna (Nanna L)
4.13.13 A hymn to Nanna (Nanna M)
4.13.14 A hymn to Nanna (Nanna N)
4.13.15 A hymn to Nanna (Nanna O)
4.13.a A hymn to Nanna
4.13.b A fragment of a hymn to Nanna
4.13.c An excerpt from a hymn to Nanna
4.13.d A fragment of a hymn to Nanna

Nanše (3 total)

4.14.1 A hymn to Nanše (Nanše A)
4.14.2 A balbale to Nanše (Nanše B)
4.14.3 Nanše and the birds (Nanše C)

Nergal (2 total)

4.15.2 A hymn to Nergal (Nergal B)
4.15.3 A tigi to Nergal (Nergal C)

Ninazu (1 total)

4.17.1 A balbale to Ninazu (Ninazu A)

Nigišzida (4 total)

4.19.1 A balbale to Ninĝišzida (Ninĝišzida A)
4.19.2 A balbale to Ninĝišzida (Ninĝišzida B)
4.19.3 A hymn to Ninĝišzida (Ninĝišzida C)
4.19.4 A balbale (?) to Ninĝišzida (Ninĝišzida D)

Ninimma (1 total)

4.21.1 A hymn to Ninimma (Ninimma A)

Ninisina (6 total)

4.22.1 A šir-gida to Ninisina (Ninisina A)
4.22.2 A šir-namšub to Ninisina (Ninisina B)
4.22.3 Ninisina’s journey to Nibru: a šir-namšub to Ninisina (Ninisina C)
4.22.4 A hymn to Ninisina (Ninisina D)
4.22.5 An adab to Ninisina (Ninisina E)
4.22.6 Ninisina and the gods (Ninisina F)

Ninkasi (1 total)

4.23.1 A hymn to Ninkasi (Ninkasi A)

Ninlil (1 total)

4.24.1 An adab to Ninlil (Ninlil A)

Ninšubur (2 total)

4.25.1 A šir-gida (?) to Ninšubur (Ninšubur A)
4.25.2 A hymn to Ninšubur (Ninšubur B)

Nintur-Aruru (1 total)

4.26.1 A tigi to Nintur (Nintur A)

Ninurta (7 total)

4.27.01 A šir-gida to Ninurta (Ninurta A)
4.27.02 Ninurta’s journey to Eridug: a šir-gida to Ninurta (Ninurta B)
4.27.03 A hymn to Ninurta (Ninurta C)
4.27.04 A tigi to Ninurta (Ninurta D)
4.27.06 A balbale to Ninurta (Ninurta F)
4.27.07 A šir-namšub to Ninurta (Ninurta G)
4.27.a A hymn to Ninurta

Nisaba (2 total)

4.16.1 A hymn to Nisaba (Nisaba A)
4.16.2 A šir-namšub to Nisaba (Nisaba B)

Nungal (1 total)

4.28.1 A hymn to Nungal (Nungal A)

Nuska (2 total)

4.29.1 A šir-gida to Nuska (Nuska A)
4.29.2 A šir-gida to Nuska (Nuska B)

Šara (1 total)

4.30.1 A balbale to Šara (Šara A)

Šul-pa-e (1 total)

4.31.1 A hymn to Šul-pa-e (Šul-pa-e A)

Utu (3 total)

4.32.2 A hymn to Utu (Utu B)
4.32.e A šir-namšub to Utu (Utu E)
4.32.f A šir-namšub to Utu (Utu F)

Other deities (2 total)

4.33.1 A hymn to Sadarnuna (Sadarnuna A)
4.33.2 A hymn to Kusu (Kusu A)

2 – Hymns addressed to or concerning temples (3 total)

4.80.1 The temple hymns
4.80.2 The Keš temple hymn
4.80.4 A hymn to the E-kur

Other Literature (56 total)

1 – Scribal life (1 total)

5.1.3 The advice of a supervisor to a younger scribe (E-dub-ba-a C)

2 – Debate poems (6 total)

5.3.1 The debate between Hoe and Plough
5.3.2 The debate between Grain and Sheep
5.3.3 The debate between Winter and Summer
5.3.5 The debate between Bird and Fish
5.3.6 The debate between Copper and Silver
5.3.7 The debate between Date Palm and Tamarisk

3 – Dialogues and diatribes (2 total)

5.4.11 A diatribe against Engar-dug (Diatribe B)
5.4.12 He is a good seed of a dog (Diatribe C)

4 – Songs, elegies, and related compositions (6 total)

5.5.1 The message of Lu-diĝira to his mother
5.5.2 An elegy on the death of Nannaya
5.5.3 An elegy on the death of Nawirtum
5.5.4 The song of the hoe
5.5.5 The song of the ploughing oxen: an ululumama to Ninurta
5.5.a A drinking song

5 – ‘Wisdom literature’ and other compositions (3 total)

5.6.1 The instructions of Šuruppag
5.6.3 The farmer’s instructions
5.6.5 The three ox-drivers from Adab

6 – Various Compositions (7 total)

A man and his god

The poem of early rulers

Enlil and Nam-zid-tara

A dog for Nintinuga

An axe for Nergal

The home of the fish

The heron and the turtle

7 – Proverb collections (26 total)

6.1.01 Proverbs: collection 1
6.1.02 Proverbs: collection 2 + 6
6.1.03 Proverbs: collection 3
6.1.04 Proverbs: collection 4
6.1.05 Proverbs: collection 5
6.1.07 Proverbs: collection 7
6.1.08 Proverbs: collection 8
6.1.09 Proverbs: collection 9
6.1.10 Proverbs: collection 10
6.1.11 Proverbs: collection 11
6.1.12 Proverbs: collection 12
6.1.13 Proverbs: collection 13
6.1.14 Proverbs: collection 14
6.1.15 Proverbs: collection 15
6.1.16 Proverbs: collection 16
6.1.17 Proverbs: collection 17
6.1.18 Proverbs: collection 18
6.1.19 Proverbs: collection 19
6.1.21 Proverbs: collection 21
6.1.22 Proverbs: collection 22
6.1.23 Proverbs: collection 23
6.1.24 Proverbs: collection 24
6.1.25 Proverbs: collection 25
6.1.26 Proverbs: collection 26
6.1.27 Proverbs: collection 27
6.1.28 Proverbs: collection 28

8 – Other proverbs (5 total)

6.2.1 Proverbs: from Nibru
6.2.2 Proverbs: from Susa
6.2.3 Proverbs: from Urim
6.2.4 Proverbs: from Unug
6.2.5 Proverbs: of unknown provenance

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List of Renaissance Humanists

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This article serves as a reference for all names of known Renaissance Humanists. The current list has over 154 names. The first part of this article contains all 154+ names listed in chronological order by birth. The second half of this article contains all the name listed in order by alphabetic nationality/category.

What is a Renaissance Humanist?

A Renaissance Humanist is one who studied classical antiquity during the renaissance epoch. The renaissance epoch is commonly believed to have begun in the 14th century and to have ended in the 17th century. Classical antiquity is sometimes considered to be the time period between the 8th century BC and the 5th-6th century AD.

The list:

The list originally started as a chronological organization of the two lists that were already present on Wikipedia. Since then, it has expanded into the most exhaustive list of Renaissance humanists on the internet.

It originally began with around 118 names. As of the most recent count, it contains around 155.

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154+ Renaissance Humanists;

Barlaam of Seminara (c.1290-1348) (Italian)

Simon Atumano (?-c.1380) (Greco-Turkish)

Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) (Italian)

Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375) (Italian)

Leontius Pilatus (?-c.1365) (Italian)

Franscesc Eiximenis (c.1330-1409) (Aragonese)

Coluccio Salutati (1331-1406) (Italian)

Geert Groote (1340-1384) (Dutch)

Bernat Metge (c.1340-1413) (Aragonese)

Manuel Chrysoloras (c.1355-1415) (Greek)

George Gemistos Plethon (c.1355-1453) (Greek)

Gasparino da Barzziza (c.1360-1431) (Italian)

Niccolò de’ Niccoli (1364-1437) (Italian)

Leonardo Bruni (c.1369-1444) (Italian)

Guarino da Verona (1370-1460) (Italian)

Vittorino da Feltre (1378-1446) (Italian)

Poggio Bracciolini (1380-1459) (Italian)

Cosimo de’ Medici (1389-1464) (Italian)

Tommaso Parentucelli (Pope Nicholas V) (1391-1455) (Italian)

Pedro, Duke of Coimbra (1392-1463) (Portuguese)

Flavio Biondo (1392-1463) (Italian)

Antonio Beccadelli (1394-1471) (Italian)

George of Trebizond (1395-1486) (Greek)

Giannozzo Manetti (1396-1459) (Italian)

Francesco Filelfo (1398-1481) (Italian)

Ińigo López de Mendoza, marqués de Santillana (1398-1458) (Spanish)

Carlo Marsuppini (1399-1453) (Italian)

Theodorus Gaza (c.1400-1475) (Greek)

Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464) (German)

Basilios Bessarion (1403-1472) (Greek)

Gregory of Sanok (1403/7-1477) (Polish)

Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472) (Italian)

Gaspar Veronese (1404-1474) (Veronese)

Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II) (1405-1464) (Italian)

John Vitéz (1408-1472) (Croatian/Hungarian)

Porcelio Pandone (1409-1485) (Italian)

Gregorio Corrario (1409-1464) (Italian)

Bartolomeo Facio (1410-1457) (Italian/Neapolitan)

John Argyropoulos (1415-1487) (Greek)

Wessel Gansfort (1419-1489) (Frisian)

Bartolomeo Platina (1421-1481) (Italian/Roman)

Vespasiano da Bisticci (1421-1498) (Italian)

Alfonso de Palencia (1423–1492) (Castilian)

Demetrius Chalcondyles (1424-1511) (Greek)

Giovanni Pontano (1426-1503) (Italian/Neapolitan)

Julius Pomponius Laetus (1428-1498) (Italian/Roman)

Niccolò Perotti (1429-1480) (Italian)

Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499) (Italian/Florentine)

Janus Pannonius (1434-1501) (Hungarian/Croatian)

John Doget (c.1434-1501) (English)

Antonio Bonfini (1434-1503) (Italian)

Stefano Infessura (c.1435-c1500) (Italian)

Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros (1436-1517) (Spanish)

Filippo Buonaccorsi (1437-1496) (Italian/Tuscan)

Giovanni Michele Alberto da Carrara (1438-1490) (Italian)

Rodolphus Agricola (1443-1485) (Frisian)

Antonio de Nebrija (1444-1522) (Spanish)

Lucio Marineo Siculo (1444-1533) (Italian)

Janus Lascaris (c.1445-1535) (Greek)

Juraj Šižgorić (1445-1509) (Croatian)

William Grocyn (c.1446-1519) (English)

Aldus Manutius (1449-1515) (Italian/Venetian)

Yuriy Drohobych (1450-1494) (Ukrainian)

Marin Barleti (c.1450-1512/13) (Albanian/Venetian)

Marko Marulić (1450-1524) (Croatian)

Jakob Wimpfeling (1450-1528) (French)

Raffaello Maffei (1451-1522) (Italian)

Johannes Stōffler (1452-1531) (German)

Filippo Beroaldo (1453-1505) (Italian)

Angelo Poliziano (1454-1494) (Italian/Florentine)

Johann Reuchlin (1455-1522) (German)

Paulus Aemilius Veronensis (1455-1529) (Italian/Venetian)

Jacques Lefèvre d’Etaples (c.1455-1536) (French)

Peter Martyr d’Anghiera (1457-1526) (Italian)

Jacopo Sannazaro (1458-1530) (Italian)

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521) (German)

Conrad Celtes (1459-1508) (German)

Thomas Linacre (c.1460-1524) (English)

Dźore Držić (1461-1501) (Croatian)

Johannes Trithemius (1462-1516) (German)

Jodocus Badius (1462-1535)

Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) (Italian)

Laurentius Corvinus (1465-1527) (Silesian)

Hector Boece (1465-1536) (Scottish)

Desiderius Erasmus (c.1466-1536) (Dutch)

John Colet (1467-1519) (English)

Laura Cereta (1469-1499) (Italian)

Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) (Italian/Florentine)

Aires de Figueiredo Barbosa (1470-1540) (Portuguese)

Janus Parrhasius (1470-1522) (Italian)

Pietro Bembo (1470-1547) (Italian)

Polydore Vergil (1470-1547) (Italian/English)

Giles of Viterbo (1472-1532) (Italian)

Ludovico Ariosto (1474-1533) (English)

Pietro Crinito (1475-1507) (Florentine)

Baldassarre Castiglione (1478-1529) (Italian)

Thomas More (1478-1535) (English)

Geoffroy Tory (c.1480-1533) (French)

Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520) (Italian)

François Rabelais (c.1483/94-1553) (French)

Bartolomé de las Casas (1484-1566) (Spanish)

Pieter Gillis (1485-1533) (Flemish)

Beatus Rhenanus (1485-1547) (German)

Sigismund von Herberstein (1486-1566) (Austrian/Slovene)

Pietro Alcionio (c.1487-1527) (Italian)

Macropedius (1487-1558) (Dutch)

William Farel (1489-1565) (French/Swiss)

Alfonso de Valdés (1490-1532) (Spanish)

Joan Boscà i Almogàver (c.1490?-1542) (Spanish)

Joan Lluís Vives i March (1492-1540) (Spanish)

Pietro Aretino (1492-1556) (Italian/Tuscan)

Sebastian Gryphius (c.1492-1556) (German)

Juan Luis Vives (1493-1540) (Spanish/Valencian)

William Celling (d.1494) (English)

Georgius Agricola (1494-1555) (German)

Juan Gines de Sepulveda (1494-1573) (Spanish)

Philipp Melanchthon (1497-1560) (German)

Pier Paolo Vergerio (1498-1565) (Italian)

André de Resende (1498-1573) (Portuguese)

François Vatable (late15th c.-1547) (French)

Janus Cornarius (1500-1558) (German)

Damião de Góis (1502-1574) (Portuguese)

Giovanni della Casa (1503-1556) (Italian)

George Buchanan (1506-1582) (Scottish)

Arnoldus Arienius (c.1510-1582) (Dutch)

Michael Servetus (1511-1553) (Spanish)

Franciscus Portus (1511-1581) (Greek/Italian)

Latino Latini (c.1513-1593) (Italian)

Petrus Ramus (1515-1572) (French)

Francesco Robertello (1516-1567) (Italian)

Hieronymus Wolf (1516-1580) (German)

Antonio Agustín y Albanell (1516-1586) (Spanish)

Johannes Goropius Becanus (1519-1572) (Dutch)

Giovanni Valentino Genile (c.1520-1566) (Italian)

Francesco Sansovino (1521–1586) (Italian)

Carolus Sigonius (1524-1584) (Italian)

Heinrich Rantzau (1526-1598) (German)

Johannes Stadius (1527-1579) (Flemish)

Fulvio Orsini (1529-1600) (Italian)

Etienne de La Boétie (1530-1563) (French)

Giovan Battista Pigna (1530-1575) (Italian)

Šimon Proxenus ze Sudetu (1532–1575) (Czech)

Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) (French)

Paul Skalich (1534-1573) (Croatian)

Alphonsus Ciacconius (1540-1599) (Spanish)

Justus Lipsius (1547-1606) (Flemish)

Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) (Italian)

Fausto Veranzio (1551-1618) (Croatian)

David Hume of Godscroft (1558–1629) (Scottish)

Ignazio Cardini (1566-1602) (Corsican/Italian)

Thomas Reid (?-1624) (Scottish)

Gian Vittorio Rossi (1577-1647) (Italian)

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Burden of Proof

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The Burden of Proof (onus probandi) is when a party which claims a claim must provide substantiation for their claim. This proof is commonly required court rooms for proving someone to be innocent or guilty. The burden of proof is not always on the party making a claim. I have included a list of vocabulary in the second part of this article. The vocabulary list serves to assist in clarifying terms that may otherwise be blurry.

A few definitions for “Burden of Proof” are;

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From (1), standards for the burden of proof (standards of proof) may include but are not limited to;

1 – Proof Beyond a Reasonable Doubt (2)
Proof Beyond a Reasonable Doubt may be considered the highest standard of proof. This standard of proof is sometimes referred to as ‘to a moral certainty’. In other words, this standard of proof requires you to be absolutely sure in your conviction.

2 – Clear and Convincing Evidence (3)
Clear and Convincing Evidence is evidence which is substantially more true than untrue. Other names for this standard of proof are as follows; “clear, convincing, and satisfactory evidence”, “clear, unequivocal, satisfactory, and convincing evidence”, and “clear, cognizant, and convincing evidence.” This standard of proof is less strict than Beyond of Reasonable Doubt, but more strict than Preponderance of Evidence.

3 – Preponderance of the Evidence (4)
Preponderance of the Evidence is sometimes known as the “Preponderance Standard”. This standard of proof is satisfied when when party holding the burden “convinces the fact finder that there is a greater than 50% chance that the claim is true”. This is the burden of proof mainly used in a civil trial.

4 – Probable Cause (5)
Probably Cause can be defined as having “a reasonable basis believing a crime may have been committed”. The Fourth Amendment reads, “no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause”. There is no clear definition for probable cause found in the constitution, but probable cause is a usual requirement for police to be allowed to obtain a warrant, conduct a search, or perform an arrest. However, under exigent circumstances, warrantless search/seizure may be conducted based on probably cause. A lack of probable cause can invalidate a warrantless arrest.

5 – Reasonable Belief (6)
Reasonable belief is “a principle that a law officer can conduct a search or seize a criminal without having a warrant if he is sure a criminal act is in progress or has been committed”. I personally wonder what constitutes an officer’s level of surety. I would assume the other items on this list play into it.

6 – Reasonable Indications
There is not a clear definition for this one that I could find. I imagine it means indictions (signs) that are reasonable may serve as a standard for the burden of proof.

7 – Reasonable Suspicion (7)
Reasonable Suspicion is a standard of proof used in criminal procedure which may or may not allow a police officer to perform a search. This is the weakest reason for search. The strongest to weakest authorities for allowing the performance of a search are a “search warrant, probable cause, and then reasonable suspicion”. Check (7) for more useful information about reasonable suspicion.

8 – Some Credible Evidence
There is not a clear definition for this one that I could find. I imagine it means that some evidence which has shown to be true may serve as a standard for the burden of proof.

9 – Some Evidence
There is not a clear definition for this one that I could find. I imagine it means that some evidence (credible, reasonable, or not) may serve as a standard for the burden of proof.

10 – Substantial Evidence (8)
Substantial Evidence may be defined as “evidence … more than a mere scintilla but less than preponderance”. In other words; it is more than mere conjecture. Substantial evidence typically is evidence with which any reasonable person would agree. Check (8) for more useful information.

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convincing –
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credible –
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indications –
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preponderance –
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probable –
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reasonable –
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substantial –
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suspicion –
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Bible Publication Dates

This article contains a list of names of Bibles ordered from the oldest to the newest. This list primarily contains English Bibles and is not exhaustive.

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1400 BC – Moses’ Ten Commandments

1312 (Orthodox Judaism tradition) – Moses given Oral Torah at Mount Sinai

1273 – Moses writes 13 scrolls of the complete Torah and gives one to each tribe, puts one in Holy Ark

500 BC – Completion of all original Hebrew Manuscripts which make up the 39 books of the OT

200 BC – Completion of the Septuagint Greek Manuscripts which make up the 39 OT books and the 14 Apocrypha books

1st Century AD – Completion of all Original Greek Manuscripts which make up the 27 books of the NT

315 AD – Athenasius, Bishop of Alexandria, identifies the 27 books of the NT recognized today

382 – Jerome’s Latin Vulgate Manuscripts produced with all 80 books (39 OT, 14 Apocrypha, 27 NT). The bibles below that have *LV after them are based upon the Latin Vulgate of Jerome.

1382-1384 – John Wycliffe is the first to translate the entire Bible into English from Latin Vulgate. He is also the first person to produce a handwritten manuscript copy of the complete bible, 80 books. *LV

c.1450s – The printing press is invented.

1455 – The first thing ever printed is the Gutenberg Latin Bible printed in Germany.

1475 – The Codex Vaticanus surfaces out of obscurity. The bibles below that have *CV after them are based upon the Codex Vaticanus.

1496 – Oxford professor John Colet

1516 – Erasmus produces Greek/Latin parallel NT, not containing the corrupt Vulgate, but his own rendering. This is the Textus Receptus. The bibles below that have *TR after them are based upon the Textus Receptus of Erasmus.

1522 – Martin Luther’s German NT.

1522 – Complutensian Polyglot Bible.

1524 – The Masoretic Text is first printed. The bibles below that have *MT after them are based upon the Masoretic Text.

1525 – William Tyndale completes NT translation from the Greek in 1525. *TR

1530 – Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples translated the Vulgate into French (which was also the first complete Christian bible available in the French language). *LV

1534 – Martin Luther’s complete Bible is published. The bibles below that have *ML after them are based upon the Bible of Martin Luther.

1535 – Miles Coverdale prints first complete Bible in English, Coverdale Bible (TCB). *LV, *ML, *MT, *TR

1537 – Matthew’s Bible, 2nd complete edition of Bible in English (80 books). *LV, *ML, *MT, *TR

1539 – Great Bible published, over 21,000 copies printed in 7 editions in 1 year, working under patronage of Thomas Cromwell. Crammer’s Bible, First English Bible authorized for public use (80 books). *LV, *ML, *MT, *TR

1539 – Taverner’s Bible. A minor revision on Matthew’s Bible. *LV, *ML, *MT, *TR

1560 – Geneva Bible (GEN) completed (90% William Tyndall’s English translation). The first English Bible to add numbered verses to each chapter (80 books). *LV, *MT, *TR

1568 – Bishops Bible printed (80 books). *TR

1571 – Queen Elizabeth decrees Bishop’s Bible placed in every parish church. The Bishop’s Bible was a basis for King James Bible. *TR

1582 – Douay-Rheims Bible based on Latin, Greek, and Hebrew MSS. *LV

1600s – Codex Alexandrinus is discovered in the first half of the century. This codex goes on to be the basis for many bibles.

1609 – Douay-Rheims Bible (DR), Douay OT added to Rheims NT (1582), First Complete English Catholic Bible (80books). *LV

1611 – King James Bible (KJV) printed (80 books), Apocrypha removed in 1885 leaving 66 books. *LV, *MT, *TR

1752 – Douay-Rheims Bible (Challoner Revision) (DRC). *LV

1764 – Quaker Bible. *MT, *TR

1769 – Oxford Standard Edition of 1611 KJB. *TR

1782 – Robert Aitken’s Bible – First English Bible printed in America

1791 – Isaac Collins and Isaiah Thomas produce first family bible and first illustrated bible, KJV (80 books)

1808 – Jane Aitken’s bible, first bible printed by a woman

1808 – Thomson’s Translation. *CV

1833 – Noah Webster’s Bible, revision of KJV. *TR

1841 – English Hexapla NT, early text comparison of the Greek and 6 famous English translations.

1844 – Brenton’s English Translation of the Septuagint

1846 – The Illuminated Bible

mid-1800s – The Codex Sinaiticus is discovered by Tischendorf. The bibles below that have *CS after them are based upon the Codex Sinaiticus.

1852 – Murdock Translation of Western Peshitto

1853 – Ferrar Fenton Bible. *MT

1862 – Young’s “Literal” Translation. *MT, *TR

1872 – Rotherham’s Emphasized Bible (REB), 1872 edition. *TR

1876 – Julia E. Smith Parker Translation. *MT, *TR

1881 – Westcott-Hort Bible. Based heavily on *CV, *CS.

1890 – Darby Bible (DBY). *CV, *CS, *MT, *TR

1901 – American Standard Version. The first major American revision of the KJV. *TR

1913 – Westminster Version of Sacred Scripture (WVSS)

1917 – Jewish Publication Society of America Version Tanakh (OT) (JPS)

1926 – Moffatt, New Translation

1926 – Concordant Literal Version (CLV) (Rev.1931, 1966)

1933 – Lamsa Bible

1941 – Confraternity Bible. A recension of the Challoner-Rheims Bible. *LV

1950 – Knox’s Translation of the Vulgate. *LV

1950 – New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (NWT) (NT)

1952 – Revised Standard Version (RSV), revision of the 1901 American Standard Version.

1958 – Berkeley Version.

1960 – New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (NWT) complete bible (2013 revised).

1963 – Judaica Press Tanakh (OT).

1965 – Amplified Bible.

1966 – Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition (RSV-CE).

1966 – Jerusalem Bible (JB).

1969 – Modern Language Bible.

1969 – Bible in Worldwide English (NT)

1970 – New American Bible (NAB)

1970 – New English Bible (NEB)

1971 – New American Standard Bible (NASB)

1971 – King James II Version (KJ2)

1971 – The Living Bible (TLB)

1971 – The Story Bible

1971 – New American Standard Bible (NASB)

1972 – “The Bible in Living English”

1973 – Cotton Patch series (NT)

1976 – “An American Translation”

1976 – Good News Bible (GNB)

1978 – New International Version (NIV)

1978 – Simple English Bible

1982 – New King James Version (NKJV), “Modern English version maintaining the original style of the King James”. *TR

1985 – Green’s Literal Translation. *TR

1985 – New Jerusalem Bible (NJB).

1985 – Recovery Version of the Bible

1985 – New Jewish Publication Society of America Version. Tanakh (OT)

1986 – Christian Community Bible (English version) (CCB)

1986 – New Life Version (NLV)

1989 – Easy-to-Read Version

1989 – Revised English Bible (REB)

1989 – New Revised Standard Version (NRSV), revision of 1952 RSV

1990 – Modern King Jame Version

1991 – New Century Version (NCV)

1994 – Leeser Bible Tanakh (OT)

1994 – Clear Word Bible

1994 – The Living Torah and The Living Nach. Tanakh (OT)

1995 – Contemporary English Version (CEV)

1995 – God’s Word (GW)

1996 – ArtScroll Tanakh (OT)

1996 – New International Version Inclusive Language Edition (NIVI)

1998 – Complete Jewish Bible (CJB)

1998 – New International Reader’s Version (NIrV)

1998 – Third Millennium Bible. *TR

1999 – American King James Version printed

1999 – The Common Edition New Testament (NT)

2000 – English Jubilee 2000 Bible

2000 – King James 2000 Version. *TR

2000 – World English Bible (WEB)

2001 – EasyEnglish Bible

2002 – English Standard Version (ESV), published to bridge gap between accuracy of NASB and readability of NIV

2002 – The Message (MSG)

2002 – The Orthodox Jewish Bible (OJB)

2003 – A Voice In The Wilderness Holy Scriptures

2004 – Hebraic Roots Version

2004 – Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)

2004 – Updated King James Version

2005 – New English Translation (NET)

2005 – Today’s New International Version (TNIV)

2005 – The Beloved and I: New Jubilees Version of the Sacred Scriptures in Verse

2005 – Dabhar Translation

2006 – Revised Standard Version-Second Catholic Edition (RSV-2CE)

2007 – The Inclusive Bible

2008 – The Orthodox Study Bible (OSB)

2008 – The Comprehendsive New Testament

2008-2012 – Aramaic English New Testament (NT)

2009 – Catholic Public Domain Version (CPDV)

2009 – HalleluYah Scriptures

2010 – King James Easy Reading Version

2010 – SBL Greek NT (Orthodox)

2011 – International Standard Version (ISV)

2011 – New American Bible Revised Edition (NABRE)

2011 – Common English Bible (CEB)

2011 – Divine Name King James Bible (DNKJB)

2011/2014 – Names of God Bible (NOG)

2012 – The Voice Bible (VOICE)

2012 – A Conservative Version (NT)

2013 – New Messianic Version (NMV)

2014 – Modern English Version (MEV)

2014 – Tree of Life Bible

2017 – Christian Standard Bible (CSB)

2017 – Evangelical Heritage Version (EHV)

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Origins of Chinese Texts

This is hardly an exhaustive list. It currently serves as the basis for future studies into the origins of Chinese texts. If you have information which you would like added to this list, you may email me content for review @

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My current published list is as follows;

1510 – Wujing Zongyao reprinted, oldest extant copy available

1557? – I Ching produced by Yi Hwang

1623 – Nestorian Stele unearthed

1623 – Stele of the Spread of the Assyrian Teachings of the Great Qin to the Central States

after 1660 – The Book of Documents (allegedly created c.1279) given an inscription by Gu Mei

1703 – first European commentary on I Ching

1775 – Twenty-Four Histories named as such

1777-1783 – Zizhi Tongjian published in French

1784 – King of Na Gold Seal discovered

1841? – earliest translation of Bamboo Annals

1846 – Biot published Chinese comet rosters

1846-1857 – Catalogue of Oriental Manuscripts, Xylographs etc. in Danish Collections, COMDC

1861? – earliest translation of Mencius

1868 – First English translation of Tao Te Ching

1871? – earliest translation of Classic of Poetry

1872? – earliest translation of Spring and Autumn Annals

after 1872 – Lotus Sutra in Fu Zengxiang’s collection, acquired by Library of Congress in 1941

1884 – Geographical Description of Tiantai Mountain published

1890 – first Western edition of the Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial translated in French (English in 1917)

19th-20th centuries – Large Rubbing of Calligraphy by Wen Tianxiang

1900s? – Sutra of the Great Virtue of Wisdom brought to Europe

1900 – Dunhuang manuscripts discovered

1900 – oldest copy of Zuo zhuan manuscript discovered with Dunhuang manuscripts

1900 – On the Fall of States discovered

1900 – copy of Tang-dynasty Chinese version of Diamond Sutra discovered among the Dunhuang manuscripts

after 1900 – oldest surviving Zuo zhuan manuscripts found among Dunhuang manuscripts

1900s – Zhou yi discovered

1907 – Dunhuang Go Manual discovered

1926 – Qieyun held in a palace library, discovered by scholars in 1947

1928 – Sinckan Manuscripts collected, edited and published in 1931

1933 – Zhaocheng Jin Tripitaka rediscovered

1934 and 1942 – Chu Silk Manuscript discovered

1936 – Yu Youren donates 300+ stele rubbings to Xian Forest of Stele Museum

1959 – 3 fragmentary manuscripts of the Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial discovered

1961 – the 1535 and 1577 edition of Shitong published

1973 – Mawangdui Silk Texts discovered

1977 – Shuanggudui excavated

1980 – Huangdi Neijing mentioned in Celestial Lancets

1993 – Guodian Chu Slips unearthed

1993 – Book of Rites “Black Robes” chapter found

2003 – 11 isolated symbols carved on tortoise shells found at Jiahu

2008 – Tsinghua Bamboo Slips (TBS) excavated

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Detian Waterfall, Chongzuo, China


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New Chronology Chart

This is a short article which provides an English translation to a Russian chart from a book by A.T. Fomenko. I have had the image saved for some time now and cannot recall the name of the book in which the chart is located. I was unable to fit the longer texts of the English translation into the chart itself, so I have numbered the longer texts and provided them in this article. I would like to have the image contain all texts so that this article is not necessary for understanding all the details, but I do not believe I possess the technology to do so at this time.

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the original Russian chart
my English translation

(1) – In Europe and Russia – fema-provinces of Byzantium. Their kings are vassals of New Rome (Byzantine Governors)

(2) – Capital – New Rome on the Bosporus

(3) – Crusaders, led by Russia-Horde avenge the crucifixion of Andronicus-Christ and free the coffin of the Lord

(4) – Ottoman Empire, it is the Macedonian Empire

(5) – Mongol invasion of Europe and its population: Noah, Japheth, the sons of la-Feta, Ottoman troops, Moses. Europe pays tribute to the Ottomans

(6) – War of the Horde With the Romanovs

(7) – Russian-Turkish Wars

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I used and Google translate to obtain the translations.

Illusory Truth Effect

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The illusory truth effect can be seen when familiar statements are quicker to be accepted as true than unfamiliar statements (1). The wiki claims that it was “first identified in a 1977 study at Villanova University and Temple University” (2). The concept behind the existence of this effect is that people rely more on whether information conforms, or “feels right”, with their preconceived notions of the world and rely less on whether or not the information is factually correct. There is an emphasis on the matter of how much the information has been repeated. The effect can be seen when information that has been observed on more occasions is more likely to be accepted as true information than the information which has been observed on less occasions. The 1977 study was repeated in 1989 and had similar results.

This effect reminds me of a famous quote by Adolf Hitler (1889-1945); “If you tell a big enough lie and tell it frequently enough, it will be believed.” Hitler has another, less famous, quote found in his book, ‘Mein Kampf’; “Slogans should be persistently repeated until the very last individual has come to grasp the idea”. The effects of repetition were not alien to Hitler and were being employed in a plethora of arenas at that time. Bertrand Russell recognizes the effects of repetition in his book, ‘Impact of Science on Society’.

The illusory truth effect, to reiterate, is that it refers specifically to the likelihood of information previously heard to be accepted as true than information that has not been heard. Three people in 1997 linked the illusory effect to be a subset of the hindsight bias. I think that the illusory effect is also closely related to the Semmelweis effect (4).

According to E. Dreyfuss, there was a study in 2015 which showed that “familiarity can overpower rationality” and that one’s beliefs may be affected by “repetitively hearing that a certain fact is wrong”. Processing fluency is the ease with which information is processed. Retrieval fluency is the ease with which information can be retrieved from memory. The 2015 study tested the degree of the illusory truth effect on people who initially knew the correct information but were convinced that the correct information was incorrect through being exposed to false information repeated.

‘Knowledge Does Not Protect Against Illusory Truth’ (5) may be an informative article that you’ll enjoy.

My advice; keep practicing thinking well and avoid perpetuating false information.

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Origins of Mayan and Mixtec Writings

Dresden Codex

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This article establishes the dates of creation and discovery for some Mayan and Mixtec writings. Please email me or comment if you have additional information you would like added.

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Mayan Manuscripts;

Most codices destroyed by conquistadors and Catholic priests in the 16th century

1562 – Fray Diego de Landa burns Mayan Sacred texts

1600s and 1700s? – Chilam Balam written?

1700s – Popol Vuh transcribed and translated (these writings on the Popol Vuh discovered around 1855)

1700s – sole surviving copy of Songs of Dzitbalche (The Book of the Dances of the Ancients) written (first full Spanish translation in 1965)

1739 – Dresden Codex purchased in Germany

1856 – Rabinal Achí recorded?

1859 – Paris Codex discovered in Paris

1860s – Madrid Codex discovered in Spain

1844 – Annals of the Cakchiquels discovered (translated in 1855, published in 1885)

1965 – Grolier Codex acquired in Mexico

Mixtec Manuscripts

1500s – Codex Waecker-Gotter probably created (owned in 1869)

1500s – Codex Zouche-Nuttall appears as a gift? (first published 1902)

1500s – Codex Vindobonensis Mexicanus I appears as a gift?

1556 – Last date mentioned in Codex Selden (given to the University of Oxford in 1654)

1600s – Codex Bodley appears

1800s? – Codex Colombino purchased by Phillip Becker?

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Origins of Aztec Writings

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Codex Mendoza page

This article establishes the dates of creation and discovery for some Aztec writings. Please email me or comment if you have additional information you would like added.

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1500s – Codex Tudela created

after 1500 – Mapa de Cuauhtinchan No. 2 created

around 1520 – Codex Borbonicus created

after 1528? – Anales de Tlatelolco created

after 1529 – Codex Boturini created

1552 – Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis (Badianus Herbal Manuscript) created?

after 1553 – Codex of Tlatelolco created

around 1540 – Oztoticpac Lands Map of Texcoco created

around 1544 – Códice de Santa María Asunción created

mid-1500s – Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca created?

mid-1500s – Romances de los señores de Nueva España created

mid-1500s – Santa Cruz Map created

mid-1500s – Codex Magliabechiano created

1550-1556 – Santa Cruz Map created

after 1550s – Anales de Tlatelolco created (translated in 1956 and 1991)

1564 – Codex Totomixtlahuaca created

after 1566 – Codex Ríos created

1578 – Chavero Code of Huexotzingo created (donated in 1906 to National Museum of Mexico)

after 1580 – History of Tlaxcala created?

after 1580 – earliest copy of Crónica Mexicayotl created

1582 – Romances de los señores de Nueva España created

after 1583 – Codex Laud owned by William Laud

1585 – Florentine Codex creation complete (discovered by scholars in the late 1700s)

1702 – first mention of Codex Azcatitlan

1746 – Crónica Mexicayotl copy first published

after 1790 – Codex Fejérvary-Mayer discovered

late 1700s – Codex Chimalpopoca copied (original lost)

1805 – Codex Borgia discovered

1814 – earliest date Codex Osuna known to be owned (created after 1564)

1831 – Codex Mendoza rediscovered (created after 1528)

1840 – Codex Xolotl first brought to Europe

1847 – Ramírez Codex first published

1890s – Lienzo de Quauhquechollan first mentioned

1893 – Aubin Codex published (maybe written around 1576)

1902 – Codex Vatincanus B translated and published

until 1925 – Huexotzinco Codex owned privately, purchased in around 1928 for Library of Congress

1965 – Cantares Mexicanos translation begins

1990s – Codex Escalada comes to light

1995 – Codex Telleriano-Remensis published

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Codex Vaticanus B

The list of Aztec documents which I have not yet located dates for is as follows;

Codex Cospi, Codex Porfirio Díaz, Aubin Manuscript No. 20, Fonds mexicain 20, Codex Chimalpahin, Codex Cozcatzin, Codex Ixtilxochitl, Codex Mexicanus, Testaments of Toluca, Testaments of Culhuacan, Tlaxcalan Actas

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Fathers and Founders List

Euclid Statue

This article was originally based on the information presented in the wiki article [1]. The rest has been filled in after finds from outside of the wiki. This list serves as a reference for when certain studies were officially established. I’m not aware of any other list on the internet which contains information presented in the way I’ve presented this information. The list is ordered by the birth date of the person who is considered the founding member of a specific study. The dates in BC have BC after their numbers. The dates in AD do not have AD after their numbers.

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Thucydides (5th century BC) – Father of Scientific History, Father of the School of Political Realism

Herodotus (484-425 BC) – Father of History, Father of Lies

Hippocrates (c.460-370 BC) – Father of Medicine

Aristotle (c.300s BC) – Father of Biology, Father of Logic, Father of Rhetoric

Euclid (c.300s-200s BC) – Father of Geometry

Archimedes (c.200s BC) – Father of Mathematics

Eratosthenes (c.200s-100s BC) – Father of Geography

Sima Qian (c.100s-1 BC) – Father of Chinese Historiography

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.260-340) – Father of Church History

Saint Benedict of Nursia (fl. 6th century) – Father of Western Monasticism

Venerable Bede (c.672-735) – Father of English History

Jabir ibn Hayyan (c.721-815) – Father of Chemistry

Muhammed ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (780-850) – Father of Algebra

Abul-Kasim Hasan Pur-Ali Tusi Ferdowsi (c.940-1020) – Father of Iranology

Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) – Father of Humanism

Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) – Father of Historiography, Father of Cultural History, Father of the Philosophy of History

Geoffrey Chaucer (c.1343-1400) – Father of English Literature

Ciriaco de’ Pizzicolli (1391-1453) – Father of (Classical) Archaeology

Galileo Galilei (1473-1543) – Father of Modern Physics/Science

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) – Father of Modern Astronomy

Juan Luis Vives (1493-1540) – Father of Modern Psychology

Felix Felicianus of Verona (15th century) – Father of Epigraphical Forgery [2]

Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574) – Father of Art History

Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) – Father of Modern Anatomy

Conrad Gesner (1516-1565) – Father of Bibliography

Hieronymus Wolf (1516-1580) – Father of Byzantine Studies

Joseph Scaliger (1540-1609) – Father of Modern Chronology

William Gilbert (1544-1603) – Father of Electricity and Magnetism

John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) – Father of Modern Education

René Descartes (1596-1650) – Father of Modern Philosophy, Father of Modern Epistemology

Francesco Redi (1626-1697) – Father of Parasitology

Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694) – Father of Microscopical Anatomy, Histology, Physiology, and Embryology

Dom Jean Mabillon, O.S.B. (1632-1707) – Father of Palaeography, Father of Diplomatics

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) – Father of Microbiology, Father of Protozoology

Nicolas Steno (1638-1686) – Founder of Stratigraphy

Thomas Tompion (1639-1713) – Father of English Clockmaking

Isaac Newton (1643-1726) – Father of Classical Mechanics, Father of Physics

Montesquieu (1689-1755) – Progenitor of Anthropology

Anne Claude de Caylus (1692-1765) – Father of Classical Archaeology

Peter Artedi (1705-1735) – Father of Ichthyology

Gerhard Friedrich Müller (1705-1783) – Father of Ethnography

Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) – Father of Ecology, Father of Taxonomy

Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) – Father of the Modern Dictionary

Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768) – Father of Modern Archeology, Father of Classical Archaeology

James Hutton (1726-1797) – Father of Geology

James Watt (1736-1819) – Father of Mechanical Engineering

Joseph Eckhel (1737-1798) – Father of Numismatics

Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) – Father of Modern Chemistry, Father of Nutrition

René Just Haüy (1743-1822) – Father of Modern Crystallography

Lindley Murray (1745-1826) – Father of English Grammar

Sir William Jones (1746-1794) – Father of Indology

Ernst Chladni XR (1756-1827) – Father of Acoustics

Erik Acharius (1757-1819) – Father of Lichenology

Noah Webster Jr. (1758-1843) – Father of American Scholarship and Education

William Kirby (1759-1850) – Father of Entomology

Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) – Founding Father of Paleontology

Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) – Father of Ecology

Luke Howard (1772-1864) – Father of Meteorology

Sir George Cayley (1773-1857) – Father of Aerodynamics, Father of the Aeroplane, Father of Aerial Navigation

André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836) – Father of Electrodynamics

Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) – Father of Egyptology

Michael Faraday (1791-1867) – Father of Electricity

Horace Mann (1796-1859) – Father of American Education

Sir John Gardner Wilkinson (1797-1875) – Father of British Egyptology

Matthew Maury (1806-1873) – Father of Oceanography

Charles Darwin (1809-1882) – Father of Evolution

Robert Mallet (1810-1881) – Father of Seismology

Austen Henry Layard (1817-1894) – Father of Assyriology

Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) – Father of Genetics

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) – Father of Biogeography

Sir Dietrich Brandis (1824-1907) – Father of Tropical Forestry and Scientific Forestry

William Stubbs (1825-1901) – Father of Modern History

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) – Father of Psychology

Oswald Schmiedeberg (1838-1921) – Father of Modern Pharmacology

Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903) – Father of Energetics

Josef Ritter von Karabacek (1845-1918) – Founder of (Arabic) Papyrology

Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky (1847-1921) – Father of Russian Aeronautics, Founder of Modern Hydrodynamics

Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) – Father of Modern Logic

Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (1853-1942) – Father of Archaeology

Roberto Mantovani (1854-1933) – Father of Expanding Earth Theory, Father of Continental Drift

Father of Psychoanalysis – Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

Franz Boas (1858-1942) – Father of American Anthropology and Modern Anthropology

Aleksey Shakhmatov (1864-1920) – Founder of Scientific Textology

A. E. Douglass (1867-1962) – Father of Dendrochronology

Vernon Louis Parrington (1871-1929) – Father of American Studies

Edward Johnston (1872-1944) – Father of Modern Calligraphy

Dr. Ludwig Klages (1872-1956) – Father of Modern Graphology

Wilhelm Schubart (1873-1960) – Founder of (Greek) Papyrology

Robert Elmer Horton (1875-1945) – Father of Hydrology

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) – Father of Physics

Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) – Father of Plate Tectonics

Howell Williams (1898-1980) – Father of Modern Volcanology

Edward Louis Bernays (1891-1995) – Father of Public Relations (Propaganda)

G. Evelyn Hutchinson (1903-1991) – Father of Modern Ecology

Zhou Youguang (1906-2017) – Father of Pinyin

Konrad Lorenz (1909-1989) – A Founder of Modern Ethology

Heinrich C. Berann (1915-1999) – Father of Modern Cartography

Noam Chomsky (1928-present) – Father of Linguistics

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This list is far from exhaustive. If there are any specific entries that you would like to have added to this list, please email me @ or comment below on this article. I am aiming to keep it limited to important studies, but also am open to adding fun/interesting ones as well.

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[1] –

[2] – Abbott, Frank Frost. “Some Spurious Inscriptions and Their Authors.” Classical Philology, vol. 3, no. 1, 1908, pp. 22–30. JSTOR, Accessed 6 June 2020.

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