Bible Publication Dates

This article contains a list of names of Bibles ordered from the oldest to the newest. This list primarily contains English Bibles and is not exhaustive.

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1400 BC – Moses’ Ten Commandments

1312 (Orthodox Judaism tradition) – Moses given Oral Torah at Mount Sinai

1273 – Moses writes 13 scrolls of the complete Torah and gives one to each tribe, puts one in Holy Ark

500 BC – Completion of all original Hebrew Manuscripts which make up the 39 books of the OT

200 BC – Completion of the Septuagint Greek Manuscripts which make up the 39 OT books and the 14 Apocrypha books

1st Century AD – Completion of all Original Greek Manuscripts which make up the 27 books of the NT

315 AD – Athenasius, Bishop of Alexandria, identifies the 27 books of the NT recognized today

382 – Jerome’s Latin Vulgate Manuscripts produced with all 80 books (39 OT, 14 Apocrypha, 27 NT). The bibles below that have *LV after them are based upon the Latin Vulgate of Jerome.

1382-1384 – John Wycliffe is the first to translate the entire Bible into English from Latin Vulgate. He is also the first person to produce a handwritten manuscript copy of the complete bible, 80 books. *LV

c.1450s – The printing press is invented.

1455 – The first thing ever printed is the Gutenberg Latin Bible printed in Germany.

1475 – The Codex Vaticanus surfaces out of obscurity. The bibles below that have *CV after them are based upon the Codex Vaticanus.

1496 – Oxford professor John Colet

1516 – Erasmus produces Greek/Latin parallel NT, not containing the corrupt Vulgate, but his own rendering. This is the Textus Receptus. The bibles below that have *TR after them are based upon the Textus Receptus of Erasmus.

1522 – Martin Luther’s German NT.

1522 – Complutensian Polyglot Bible.

1524 – The Masoretic Text is first printed. The bibles below that have *MT after them are based upon the Masoretic Text.

1525 – William Tyndale completes NT translation from the Greek in 1525. *TR

1530 – Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples translated the Vulgate into French (which was also the first complete Christian bible available in the French language). *LV

1534 – Martin Luther’s complete Bible is published. The bibles below that have *ML after them are based upon the Bible of Martin Luther.

1535 – Miles Coverdale prints first complete Bible in English, Coverdale Bible (TCB). *LV, *ML, *MT, *TR

1537 – Matthew’s Bible, 2nd complete edition of Bible in English (80 books). *LV, *ML, *MT, *TR

1539 – Great Bible published, over 21,000 copies printed in 7 editions in 1 year, working under patronage of Thomas Cromwell. Crammer’s Bible, First English Bible authorized for public use (80 books). *LV, *ML, *MT, *TR

1539 – Taverner’s Bible. A minor revision on Matthew’s Bible. *LV, *ML, *MT, *TR

1560 – Geneva Bible (GEN) completed (90% William Tyndall’s English translation). The first English Bible to add numbered verses to each chapter (80 books). *LV, *MT, *TR

1568 – Bishops Bible printed (80 books). *TR

1571 – Queen Elizabeth decrees Bishop’s Bible placed in every parish church. The Bishop’s Bible was a basis for King James Bible. *TR

1582 – Douay-Rheims Bible based on Latin, Greek, and Hebrew MSS. *LV

1600s – Codex Alexandrinus is discovered in the first half of the century. This codex goes on to be the basis for many bibles.

1609 – Douay-Rheims Bible (DR), Douay OT added to Rheims NT (1582), First Complete English Catholic Bible (80books). *LV

1611 – King James Bible (KJV) printed (80 books), Apocrypha removed in 1885 leaving 66 books. *LV, *MT, *TR

1752 – Douay-Rheims Bible (Challoner Revision) (DRC). *LV

1764 – Quaker Bible. *MT, *TR

1769 – Oxford Standard Edition of 1611 KJB. *TR

1782 – Robert Aitken’s Bible – First English Bible printed in America

1791 – Isaac Collins and Isaiah Thomas produce first family bible and first illustrated bible, KJV (80 books)

1808 – Jane Aitken’s bible, first bible printed by a woman

1808 – Thomson’s Translation. *CV

1833 – Noah Webster’s Bible, revision of KJV. *TR

1841 – English Hexapla NT, early text comparison of the Greek and 6 famous English translations.

1844 – Brenton’s English Translation of the Septuagint

1846 – The Illuminated Bible

mid-1800s – The Codex Sinaiticus is discovered by Tischendorf. The bibles below that have *CS after them are based upon the Codex Sinaiticus.

1852 – Murdock Translation of Western Peshitto

1853 – Ferrar Fenton Bible. *MT

1862 – Young’s “Literal” Translation. *MT, *TR

1872 – Rotherham’s Emphasized Bible (REB), 1872 edition. *TR

1876 – Julia E. Smith Parker Translation. *MT, *TR

1881 – Westcott-Hort Bible. Based heavily on *CV, *CS.

1890 – Darby Bible (DBY). *CV, *CS, *MT, *TR

1901 – American Standard Version. The first major American revision of the KJV. *TR

1913 – Westminster Version of Sacred Scripture (WVSS)

1917 – Jewish Publication Society of America Version Tanakh (OT) (JPS)

1926 – Moffatt, New Translation

1926 – Concordant Literal Version (CLV) (Rev.1931, 1966)

1933 – Lamsa Bible

1941 – Confraternity Bible. A recension of the Challoner-Rheims Bible. *LV

1950 – Knox’s Translation of the Vulgate. *LV

1950 – New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (NWT) (NT)

1952 – Revised Standard Version (RSV), revision of the 1901 American Standard Version.

1958 – Berkeley Version.

1960 – New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (NWT) complete bible (2013 revised).

1963 – Judaica Press Tanakh (OT).

1965 – Amplified Bible.

1966 – Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition (RSV-CE).

1966 – Jerusalem Bible (JB).

1969 – Modern Language Bible.

1969 – Bible in Worldwide English (NT)

1970 – New American Bible (NAB)

1970 – New English Bible (NEB)

1971 – New American Standard Bible (NASB)

1971 – King James II Version (KJ2)

1971 – The Living Bible (TLB)

1971 – The Story Bible

1971 – New American Standard Bible (NASB)

1972 – “The Bible in Living English”

1973 – Cotton Patch series (NT)

1976 – “An American Translation”

1976 – Good News Bible (GNB)

1978 – New International Version (NIV)

1978 – Simple English Bible

1982 – New King James Version (NKJV), “Modern English version maintaining the original style of the King James”. *TR

1985 – Green’s Literal Translation. *TR

1985 – New Jerusalem Bible (NJB).

1985 – Recovery Version of the Bible

1985 – New Jewish Publication Society of America Version. Tanakh (OT)

1986 – Christian Community Bible (English version) (CCB)

1986 – New Life Version (NLV)

1989 – Easy-to-Read Version

1989 – Revised English Bible (REB)

1989 – New Revised Standard Version (NRSV), revision of 1952 RSV

1990 – Modern King Jame Version

1991 – New Century Version (NCV)

1994 – Leeser Bible Tanakh (OT)

1994 – Clear Word Bible

1994 – The Living Torah and The Living Nach. Tanakh (OT)

1995 – Contemporary English Version (CEV)

1995 – God’s Word (GW)

1996 – ArtScroll Tanakh (OT)

1996 – New International Version Inclusive Language Edition (NIVI)

1998 – Complete Jewish Bible (CJB)

1998 – New International Reader’s Version (NIrV)

1998 – Third Millennium Bible. *TR

1999 – American King James Version printed

1999 – The Common Edition New Testament (NT)

2000 – English Jubilee 2000 Bible

2000 – King James 2000 Version. *TR

2000 – World English Bible (WEB)

2001 – EasyEnglish Bible

2002 – English Standard Version (ESV), published to bridge gap between accuracy of NASB and readability of NIV

2002 – The Message (MSG)

2002 – The Orthodox Jewish Bible (OJB)

2003 – A Voice In The Wilderness Holy Scriptures

2004 – Hebraic Roots Version

2004 – Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)

2004 – Updated King James Version

2005 – New English Translation (NET)

2005 – Today’s New International Version (TNIV)

2005 – The Beloved and I: New Jubilees Version of the Sacred Scriptures in Verse

2005 – Dabhar Translation

2006 – Revised Standard Version-Second Catholic Edition (RSV-2CE)

2007 – The Inclusive Bible

2008 – The Orthodox Study Bible (OSB)

2008 – The Comprehendsive New Testament

2008-2012 – Aramaic English New Testament (NT)

2009 – Catholic Public Domain Version (CPDV)

2009 – HalleluYah Scriptures

2010 – King James Easy Reading Version

2010 – SBL Greek NT (Orthodox)

2011 – International Standard Version (ISV)

2011 – New American Bible Revised Edition (NABRE)

2011 – Common English Bible (CEB)

2011 – Divine Name King James Bible (DNKJB)

2011/2014 – Names of God Bible (NOG)

2012 – The Voice Bible (VOICE)

2012 – A Conservative Version (NT)

2013 – New Messianic Version (NMV)

2014 – Modern English Version (MEV)

2014 – Tree of Life Bible

2017 – Christian Standard Bible (CSB)

2017 – Evangelical Heritage Version (EHV)

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References:

[1] – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textus_Receptus#English_translations_from_Textus_Receptus

[2] – http://www.historyofinformation.com/detail.php?id=2227

[3] – https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/questions/5598/english-bible-translations-based-on-the-vulgate

[4] – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_Bible_translations

[5] – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masoretic_Text#History_of_the_Masorah

[6] – https://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?recnum=4300

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Origins of Chinese Texts

This is hardly an exhaustive list. It currently serves as the basis for future studies into the origins of Chinese texts. If you have information which you would like added to this list, you may email me content for review @ ChronologyTruth@gmail.com.

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My current published list is as follows;

1510 – Wujing Zongyao reprinted, oldest extant copy available

1557? – I Ching produced by Yi Hwang

1623 – Nestorian Stele unearthed

1623 – Stele of the Spread of the Assyrian Teachings of the Great Qin to the Central States

after 1660 – The Book of Documents (allegedly created c.1279) given an inscription by Gu Mei

1703 – first European commentary on I Ching

1775 – Twenty-Four Histories named as such

1777-1783 – Zizhi Tongjian published in French

1784 – King of Na Gold Seal discovered

1841? – earliest translation of Bamboo Annals

1846 – Biot published Chinese comet rosters

1846-1857 – Catalogue of Oriental Manuscripts, Xylographs etc. in Danish Collections, COMDC

1861? – earliest translation of Mencius

1868 – First English translation of Tao Te Ching

1871? – earliest translation of Classic of Poetry

1872? – earliest translation of Spring and Autumn Annals

after 1872 – Lotus Sutra in Fu Zengxiang’s collection, acquired by Library of Congress in 1941

1884 – Geographical Description of Tiantai Mountain published

1890 – first Western edition of the Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial translated in French (English in 1917)

19th-20th centuries – Large Rubbing of Calligraphy by Wen Tianxiang

1900s? – Sutra of the Great Virtue of Wisdom brought to Europe

1900 – Dunhuang manuscripts discovered

1900 – oldest copy of Zuo zhuan manuscript discovered with Dunhuang manuscripts

1900 – On the Fall of States discovered

1900 – copy of Tang-dynasty Chinese version of Diamond Sutra discovered among the Dunhuang manuscripts

after 1900 – oldest surviving Zuo zhuan manuscripts found among Dunhuang manuscripts

1900s – Zhou yi discovered

1907 – Dunhuang Go Manual discovered

1926 – Qieyun held in a palace library, discovered by scholars in 1947

1928 – Sinckan Manuscripts collected, edited and published in 1931

1933 – Zhaocheng Jin Tripitaka rediscovered

1934 and 1942 – Chu Silk Manuscript discovered

1936 – Yu Youren donates 300+ stele rubbings to Xian Forest of Stele Museum

1959 – 3 fragmentary manuscripts of the Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial discovered

1961 – the 1535 and 1577 edition of Shitong published

1973 – Mawangdui Silk Texts discovered

1977 – Shuanggudui excavated

1980 – Huangdi Neijing mentioned in Celestial Lancets

1993 – Guodian Chu Slips unearthed

1993 – Book of Rites “Black Robes” chapter found

2003 – 11 isolated symbols carved on tortoise shells found at Jiahu

2008 – Tsinghua Bamboo Slips (TBS) excavated

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Detian Waterfall, Chongzuo, China

References;

(1) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Chinese_manuscripts

(2) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Chinese

(3) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_classics

(4) – https://archive.org/stream/chineseclassics07legggoog#page/n123/mode/1up

(5) – https://www.wdl.org/en/sets/chinese-literature/timeline/

(6) – https://www.wdl.org/en/item/11378/

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New Chronology Chart

This is a short article which provides an English translation to a Russian chart from a book by A.T. Fomenko. I have had the image saved for some time now and cannot recall the name of the book in which the chart is located. I was unable to fit the longer texts of the English translation into the chart itself, so I have numbered the longer texts and provided them in this article. I would like to have the image contain all texts so that this article is not necessary for understanding all the details, but I do not believe I possess the technology to do so at this time.

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the original Russian chart
my English translation

(1) – In Europe and Russia – fema-provinces of Byzantium. Their kings are vassals of New Rome (Byzantine Governors)

(2) – Capital – New Rome on the Bosporus

(3) – Crusaders, led by Russia-Horde avenge the crucifixion of Andronicus-Christ and free the coffin of the Lord

(4) – Ottoman Empire, it is the Macedonian Empire

(5) – Mongol invasion of Europe and its population: Noah, Japheth, the sons of la-Feta, Ottoman troops, Moses. Europe pays tribute to the Ottomans

(6) – War of the Horde With the Romanovs

(7) – Russian-Turkish Wars

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I used http://russian.typeit.org and Google translate to obtain the translations.

Illusory Truth Effect

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The illusory truth effect can be seen when familiar statements are quicker to be accepted as true than unfamiliar statements (1). The wiki claims that it was “first identified in a 1977 study at Villanova University and Temple University” (2). The concept behind the existence of this effect is that people rely more on whether information conforms, or “feels right”, with their preconceived notions of the world and rely less on whether or not the information is factually correct. There is an emphasis on the matter of how much the information has been repeated. The effect can be seen when information that has been observed on more occasions is more likely to be accepted as true information than the information which has been observed on less occasions. The 1977 study was repeated in 1989 and had similar results.

This effect reminds me of a famous quote by Adolf Hitler (1889-1945); “If you tell a big enough lie and tell it frequently enough, it will be believed.” Hitler has another, less famous, quote found in his book, ‘Mein Kampf’; “Slogans should be persistently repeated until the very last individual has come to grasp the idea”. The effects of repetition were not alien to Hitler and were being employed in a plethora of arenas at that time. Bertrand Russell recognizes the effects of repetition in his book, ‘Impact of Science on Society’.

The illusory truth effect, to reiterate, is that it refers specifically to the likelihood of information previously heard to be accepted as true than information that has not been heard. Three people in 1997 linked the illusory effect to be a subset of the hindsight bias. I think that the illusory effect is also closely related to the Semmelweis effect (4).

According to E. Dreyfuss, there was a study in 2015 which showed that “familiarity can overpower rationality” and that one’s beliefs may be affected by “repetitively hearing that a certain fact is wrong”. Processing fluency is the ease with which information is processed. Retrieval fluency is the ease with which information can be retrieved from memory. The 2015 study tested the degree of the illusory truth effect on people who initially knew the correct information but were convinced that the correct information was incorrect through being exposed to false information repeated.

‘Knowledge Does Not Protect Against Illusory Truth’ (5) may be an informative article that you’ll enjoy.

My advice; keep practicing thinking well and avoid perpetuating false information.

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References;

(1) – http://energyskeptic.com/2013/cognitive-bias/

(2) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illusory_truth_effect

(3) – https://www.wired.com/2017/02/dont-believe-lies-just-people-repeat/

(4) – https://chronologytruth.wordpress.com/2019/01/28/semmelweis-effect/

(5) – https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/features/xge-0000098.pdf

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Origins of Mayan and Mixtec Writings

Dresden Codex

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This article establishes the dates of creation and discovery for some Mayan and Mixtec writings. Please email me or comment if you have additional information you would like added.

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Mayan Manuscripts;

Most codices destroyed by conquistadors and Catholic priests in the 16th century

1562 – Fray Diego de Landa burns Mayan Sacred texts

1600s and 1700s? – Chilam Balam written?

1700s – Popol Vuh transcribed and translated (these writings on the Popol Vuh discovered around 1855)

1700s – sole surviving copy of Songs of Dzitbalche (The Book of the Dances of the Ancients) written (first full Spanish translation in 1965)

1739 – Dresden Codex purchased in Germany

1856 – Rabinal Achí recorded?

1859 – Paris Codex discovered in Paris

1860s – Madrid Codex discovered in Spain

1844 – Annals of the Cakchiquels discovered (translated in 1855, published in 1885)

1965 – Grolier Codex acquired in Mexico

Mixtec Manuscripts

1500s – Codex Waecker-Gotter probably created (owned in 1869)

1500s – Codex Zouche-Nuttall appears as a gift? (first published 1902)

1500s – Codex Vindobonensis Mexicanus I appears as a gift?

1556 – Last date mentioned in Codex Selden (given to the University of Oxford in 1654)

1600s – Codex Bodley appears

1800s? – Codex Colombino purchased by Phillip Becker?

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References;

(1) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_literature

(2) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Mesoamerican_codices

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Origins of Aztec Writings

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Codex Mendoza page

This article establishes the dates of creation and discovery for some Aztec writings. Please email me or comment if you have additional information you would like added.

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1500s – Codex Tudela created

after 1500 – Mapa de Cuauhtinchan No. 2 created

around 1520 – Codex Borbonicus created

after 1528? – Anales de Tlatelolco created

after 1529 – Codex Boturini created

1552 – Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis (Badianus Herbal Manuscript) created?

after 1553 – Codex of Tlatelolco created

around 1540 – Oztoticpac Lands Map of Texcoco created

around 1544 – Códice de Santa María Asunción created

mid-1500s – Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca created?

mid-1500s – Romances de los señores de Nueva España created

mid-1500s – Santa Cruz Map created

mid-1500s – Codex Magliabechiano created

1550-1556 – Santa Cruz Map created

after 1550s – Anales de Tlatelolco created (translated in 1956 and 1991)

1564 – Codex Totomixtlahuaca created

after 1566 – Codex Ríos created

1578 – Chavero Code of Huexotzingo created (donated in 1906 to National Museum of Mexico)

after 1580 – History of Tlaxcala created?

after 1580 – earliest copy of Crónica Mexicayotl created

1582 – Romances de los señores de Nueva España created

after 1583 – Codex Laud owned by William Laud

1585 – Florentine Codex creation complete (discovered by scholars in the late 1700s)

1702 – first mention of Codex Azcatitlan

1746 – Crónica Mexicayotl copy first published

after 1790 – Codex Fejérvary-Mayer discovered

late 1700s – Codex Chimalpopoca copied (original lost)

1805 – Codex Borgia discovered

1814 – earliest date Codex Osuna known to be owned (created after 1564)

1831 – Codex Mendoza rediscovered (created after 1528)

1840 – Codex Xolotl first brought to Europe

1847 – Ramírez Codex first published

1890s – Lienzo de Quauhquechollan first mentioned

1893 – Aubin Codex published (maybe written around 1576)

1902 – Codex Vatincanus B translated and published

until 1925 – Huexotzinco Codex owned privately, purchased in around 1928 for Library of Congress

1965 – Cantares Mexicanos translation begins

1990s – Codex Escalada comes to light

1995 – Codex Telleriano-Remensis published

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Codex Vaticanus B

The list of Aztec documents which I have not yet located dates for is as follows;

Codex Cospi, Codex Porfirio Díaz, Aubin Manuscript No. 20, Fonds mexicain 20, Codex Chimalpahin, Codex Cozcatzin, Codex Ixtilxochitl, Codex Mexicanus, Testaments of Toluca, Testaments of Culhuacan, Tlaxcalan Actas

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References;

(1) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aztec_codices

(2) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_literature

(3) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Mesoamerican_codices

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Fathers and Founders List

Euclid Statue

This article was originally based on the information presented in the wiki article [1]. The rest has been filled in after finds from outside of the wiki. This list serves as a reference for when certain studies were officially established. I’m not aware of any other list on the internet which contains information presented in the way I’ve presented this information. The list is ordered by the birth date of the person who is considered the founding member of a specific study. The dates in BC have BC after their numbers. The dates in AD do not have AD after their numbers.

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Thucydides (5th century BC) – Father of Scientific History, Father of the School of Political Realism

Herodotus (484-425 BC) – Father of History, Father of Lies

Hippocrates (c.460-370 BC) – Father of Medicine

Aristotle (c.300s BC) – Father of Biology, Father of Logic, Father of Rhetoric

Euclid (c.300s-200s BC) – Father of Geometry

Archimedes (c.200s BC) – Father of Mathematics

Eratosthenes (c.200s-100s BC) – Father of Geography

Sima Qian (c.100s-1 BC) – Father of Chinese Historiography

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.260-340) – Father of Church History

Saint Benedict of Nursia (fl. 6th century) – Father of Western Monasticism

Venerable Bede (c.672-735) – Father of English History

Jabir ibn Hayyan (c.721-815) – Father of Chemistry

Muhammed ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (780-850) – Father of Algebra

Abul-Kasim Hasan Pur-Ali Tusi Ferdowsi (c.940-1020) – Father of Iranology

Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) – Father of Humanism

Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) – Father of Historiography, Father of Cultural History, Father of the Philosophy of History

Geoffrey Chaucer (c.1343-1400) – Father of English Literature

Ciriaco de’ Pizzicolli (1391-1453) – Father of (Classical) Archaeology

Galileo Galilei (1473-1543) – Father of Modern Physics/Science

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) – Father of Modern Astronomy

Juan Luis Vives (1493-1540) – Father of Modern Psychology

Felix Felicianus of Verona (15th century) – Father of Epigraphical Forgery [2]

Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574) – Father of Art History

Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) – Father of Modern Anatomy

Conrad Gesner (1516-1565) – Father of Bibliography

Hieronymus Wolf (1516-1580) – Father of Byzantine Studies

Joseph Scaliger (1540-1609) – Father of Modern Chronology

William Gilbert (1544-1603) – Father of Electricity and Magnetism

John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) – Father of Modern Education

René Descartes (1596-1650) – Father of Modern Philosophy, Father of Modern Epistemology

Francesco Redi (1626-1697) – Father of Parasitology

Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694) – Father of Microscopical Anatomy, Histology, Physiology, and Embryology

Dom Jean Mabillon, O.S.B. (1632-1707) – Father of Palaeography, Father of Diplomatics

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) – Father of Microbiology, Father of Protozoology

Nicolas Steno (1638-1686) – Founder of Stratigraphy

Thomas Tompion (1639-1713) – Father of English Clockmaking

Isaac Newton (1643-1726) – Father of Classical Mechanics, Father of Physics

Montesquieu (1689-1755) – Progenitor of Anthropology

Anne Claude de Caylus (1692-1765) – Father of Classical Archaeology

Peter Artedi (1705-1735) – Father of Ichthyology

Gerhard Friedrich Müller (1705-1783) – Father of Ethnography

Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) – Father of Ecology, Father of Taxonomy

Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) – Father of the Modern Dictionary

Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768) – Father of Modern Archeology, Father of Classical Archaeology

James Hutton (1726-1797) – Father of Geology

James Watt (1736-1819) – Father of Mechanical Engineering

Joseph Eckhel (1737-1798) – Father of Numismatics

Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) – Father of Modern Chemistry, Father of Nutrition

René Just Haüy (1743-1822) – Father of Modern Crystallography

Lindley Murray (1745-1826) – Father of English Grammar

Sir William Jones (1746-1794) – Father of Indology

Ernst Chladni XR (1756-1827) – Father of Acoustics

Erik Acharius (1757-1819) – Father of Lichenology

Noah Webster Jr. (1758-1843) – Father of American Scholarship and Education

William Kirby (1759-1850) – Father of Entomology

Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) – Founding Father of Paleontology

Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) – Father of Ecology

Luke Howard (1772-1864) – Father of Meteorology

Sir George Cayley (1773-1857) – Father of Aerodynamics, Father of the Aeroplane, Father of Aerial Navigation

André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836) – Father of Electrodynamics

Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) – Father of Egyptology

Michael Faraday (1791-1867) – Father of Electricity

Horace Mann (1796-1859) – Father of American Education

Sir John Gardner Wilkinson (1797-1875) – Father of British Egyptology

Matthew Maury (1806-1873) – Father of Oceanography

Charles Darwin (1809-1882) – Father of Evolution

Robert Mallet (1810-1881) – Father of Seismology

Austen Henry Layard (1817-1894) – Father of Assyriology

Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) – Father of Genetics

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) – Father of Biogeography

Sir Dietrich Brandis (1824-1907) – Father of Tropical Forestry and Scientific Forestry

William Stubbs (1825-1901) – Father of Modern History

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) – Father of Psychology

Oswald Schmiedeberg (1838-1921) – Father of Modern Pharmacology

Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903) – Father of Energetics

Josef Ritter von Karabacek (1845-1918) – Founder of (Arabic) Papyrology

Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky (1847-1921) – Father of Russian Aeronautics, Founder of Modern Hydrodynamics

Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) – Father of Modern Logic

Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (1853-1942) – Father of Archaeology

Roberto Mantovani (1854-1933) – Father of Expanding Earth Theory, Father of Continental Drift

Father of Psychoanalysis – Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

Franz Boas (1858-1942) – Father of American Anthropology and Modern Anthropology

Aleksey Shakhmatov (1864-1920) – Founder of Scientific Textology

A. E. Douglass (1867-1962) – Father of Dendrochronology

Vernon Louis Parrington (1871-1929) – Father of American Studies

Edward Johnston (1872-1944) – Father of Modern Calligraphy

Dr. Ludwig Klages (1872-1956) – Father of Modern Graphology

Wilhelm Schubart (1873-1960) – Founder of (Greek) Papyrology

Robert Elmer Horton (1875-1945) – Father of Hydrology

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) – Father of Physics

Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) – Father of Plate Tectonics

Howell Williams (1898-1980) – Father of Modern Volcanology

Edward Louis Bernays (1891-1995) – Father of Public Relations (Propaganda)

G. Evelyn Hutchinson (1903-1991) – Father of Modern Ecology

Zhou Youguang (1906-2017) – Father of Pinyin

Konrad Lorenz (1909-1989) – A Founder of Modern Ethology

Heinrich C. Berann (1915-1999) – Father of Modern Cartography

Noam Chomsky (1928-present) – Father of Linguistics

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This list is far from exhaustive. If there are any specific entries that you would like to have added to this list, please email me @ chronologytruth@gmail.com or comment below on this article. I am aiming to keep it limited to important studies, but also am open to adding fun/interesting ones as well.

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References:

[1] – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_people_considered_father_or_mother_of_a_scientific_field

[2] – Abbott, Frank Frost. “Some Spurious Inscriptions and Their Authors.” Classical Philology, vol. 3, no. 1, 1908, pp. 22–30. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/262031. Accessed 6 June 2020.

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Establishment Dates of Museums

1506 – Vatican Museums established

1523 – Venice National Archaeological Museum established

1581 – Uffizi Gallery (Florence) established

1596 – Natural History Museum of the University of Pisa established

1660 – Royal Armouries Museum (Leeds) established

1671 – Amerbach Museum opens to the public

1683 – Ashmolean Museum (Oxford) established

1693 – Martin Luther’s Birth House opened

1694 – Musée des Beaux-Arts et d’Archéologie de Besançon set up

1709 – Central Naval Museum mentioned ?

1715 – Dresden Porcelain Collection founded

1717 – Kunstkamera founded

1720 – Collection of Prints, Drawings, and Photographs (Dresden) founded

1723 – Grünes Gewölbe founded

1724 – Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon founded

1734 – Capitoline Museums established

1750 – Musée du Luxembourg established

1750 – Gallerie dell’Accademia established

1753 – British Museum (London) established

1754 – Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum founded

1757 – Museo di Capodimonte

1764 – State Hermitage Museum (Russia) established

1773 – Charleston Museum established

1773 – Museum of the History of Riga and Navigation’s collection originates

1777 – National Archaeological Museum (Naples) established

1778 – National Museum of Indonesia established

1779 – Fridericianum built

1780 – Museo del Seminario inaugurated

1781 – Belvedere Palace opened to the public

1784 – Galleria dell’Accademia established

1786 – Peale Museum

1786 – Marischal Museum founded

1787 – Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon established

1787 – Kunsthaus Zürich founded

1791 – Zoological Museum of Moscow University established

1791 – Albany Institute of History & Art founded

1792 – Nationalmuseum established

1793 – Museum of Fine Arts of Nancy established

1793 – Louvre Museum (Paris) established

1794 – Musée des Arts et Métiers established

1794 – Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes established

1794 – Museum of Fine Arts (Reims) collection established

1795 – Musée des Beaux-Arts de Tours established

1796 – Accademia Carrara di Belle Arti di Bergamo ?

1796 – Kendal Museum established

1796 – Muséum de Toulouse founded

1796 – Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna collection established

1797 – Musée des Beaux-Arts d’Orléans established

1798 – Museum of Grenoble established

1799 – Hunterian Museum (London) established

1800 – Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam) established

1801 – Musée des Beaux-Arts de Caen established

1801 – Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen founded

1801 – Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nantes established

1801 – Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux established

1801 – Musée des Beaux-Arts de Valenciennes opened

1801 – Musée des Augustins established

1801 – Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon established

1801 – Oldmasters Museum founded

1802 – Hungarian National Museum founded

1802 – Musée de Picardie founded

1805 – Museum of King John III’s Palace at Wilanów established

1805 – Brighton Museum & Art Gallery established

1809 – Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille established

1810 – Natural History Museum (Berlin) established

1810 – Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp established

1811 – Foundation Calvet founded

1811 – Museum of Natural History (Görlitz) established

1811 – Universalmuseum Joanne established

1811 – Zoological Museum of Naples founded

1812 – Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Argentine Museum established

1812 – Egyptian Hall (London) built

1814 – Indian Museum (Kolkata) established

1816 – Fitzwilliam Museum established

1817 – Conservatory and Botanical Garden of the City of Geneva opened

1817 – Dulwich Picture Gallery opened

1817 – Brukenthal National Museum (Sibiu) opened to the public

1817 – National Archaeological Museum of Cividale del Friuli founded

1817 – Städel Museum (Germany) founded

1818 – The Rotunda (New York City) established

1818 – National Museum (Rio de Janeiro) established

1818 – National Museum of Brazil founded

1818 – Royal Cornwall Museum established

1818 – Museo del Prado (Madrid) established

1818 – Akademisches Kunstmuseum (Germany) founded

1818 – Asiatic Museum (Saint Petersburg) founded

1819 – Halle State Museum of Prehistory established

1819 – Leeds City Museum established

1819 – Museum and Institute of Zoology (Poland) established

1819 – Swedish Museum of Natural History established

1820 – Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie founded

1820 – Royal Artillery Museum (London) established

1821 – The Secret Museum established

1821 – National Museum of Slovenia established

1821 – Slovenian Museum of Natural History founded

1821 – Museum of Fine Arts (Dole) founded

1821 – Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nîmes founded

1822 – National Portrait Gallery (Sweden) founded

1822 – Mauritshuis (Netherlands) established

1823 – Colombian National Museum established

1823 – Tyrolean State Museum

1823 – Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery established

1823 – Manchester Art Gallery established

1824 – Franklin Institute founded

1824 – Pilgrim Hall Museum opened

1824 – National Gallery (Central London) established

1825 – University Museum of Bergen founded

1825 – Odessa Archeological Museum founded

1825 – Iziko South African Museum established

1825 – Musée Fabre founded

1826 – Musée Rath founded

1826 – National Museum of the Archaeology, Anthropology, and History of Peru

1827 – Australian Museum established

1827 – Niagara Falls Museum established

1827 – London Colosseum built

1828 – Archaeological Museum of Aegina founded

1828 – Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy established

1828 – Civic Museum Bassano del Grappa founded

1829 – National Archaeological Museum

1829 – Frankfurter Kunstverein founded

1829 – Smithsonian American Art Museum established

1829 – Rotunda Museum (North Yorkshire) established

1830 – Altes Museum (Berlin) construction completed

1830 – Museo Correr (Italy) established

1830 – Gemäldegalerie (Berlin) established

1830 – Glyptothek (Munich) opened

1830 – Museum of Science (Boston) established

1830 – Chilean National Museum of Natural History founded

1830 – Yorkshire Museum opened

1831 – Museum of Prints and Drawings founded

1831 – Alabama Museum of Natural History founded

1831 – Rumyantsev Museum (Moscow) opened

1832 – Natural History Museum of Bern established

1832 – Sabauda Gallery established

1832 – Yale University Art Gallery established

1833 – Worcester City Art Gallery & Museum established

1833 – Soares dos Reis National Museum established

1833? – Museo Egizio (Turin) established

1833 – Palace of Versailles Museum began

1834 – Salzburg Museum established

1835 – Musée Dupuytren established

1835 – Museum of Practical Geology started

1835 – Museum of Cádiz established

1835 – Wisbech & Fenland Museum founded

1835 – Musée Thomas-Henry started

1836 – Dover Museum founded

1836 – New York State Museum established

1836 – State Museum for Nature and Man (Germany)

1836 – Alte Pinokothek (Munich) established

1836 – Archaeological Museum in Zagreb established

1837 – Sir John Soane’s Museum established

1837 – National Museum of Ethnology (Netherlands) established

1838 – Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano founded

1838 – Centraal Museum founded

1839 – Museum of Fine Arts of Seville founded

1839 – Museums of Metz founded

1839 – Musée Antoine Vivenel founded

1840 – Museum of Cultures (Basel) established

1840 – Oriental Coin Cabinet Jena founded

1840 – Goya Museum established

1841 – Cantonal Museum of Fine Arts created

1841 – Montrose Museum established

1841 – Boston Museum and Gallery of Fine Arts established

1841 – Barnum’s American Museum began ?

1842 – National Gallery (Norway) established

1842 – Dorfrechts Museum founded

1842 – Museo Nacional de Escultura (Valladolid) founded

1843 – Musée de Cluny established

1843 – Staatsgalerie Stuttgart opened

1843 – Elgin Museum (Moray) opened

1843 – King George III Museum established

1843 – Naval Museum of Madrid established

1844 – Historical Museum of Serbia established

1844 – Lateran Museum established

1844 – Museum of Fine Arts of Córdoba founded

1844 – Royal West of England Academy established

1844 – Wadsworth Atheneum established

1844 – Roemer Museum founded

1845 – Latvian Museum of Natural History founded

1845 – Aivazovsky National Art Gallery established

1846 – Civico Museo di Storia Naturale di Trieste

1846 – Croatian Natural History Museum established

1846 – Dorset County Museum established

1846 – Grenoble Archaeological Museum established

1846 – Sunderland Museum and Winter Gardens established

1846 – Museum of Natural Sciences established

1846 – Natural History Museum of Nice established

1846 – Staatliche Kunsthalle opened

1846 – Ipswich Museum founded

1847 – Chinese Museum (Boston) opened ?

1847 – Museum of Vojvodina established

1846 – Smithsonian Institution (Washington)

1848 – Thorvaldsens Museum founded

1848 – Museum der bildenden Künste established

1849 – National Museum of Singapore origins

1847 – Halle Gate (Brussels) became a museum

1850 – Salford Museum and Art Gallery opened

1850 – Archaeological Museum of Kraków established

1851 – Bernhard Museum Complex built

1851 – Government Museum (Chennai) established

1851 – Pinacoteca Tosio Martinengo established

1851 – World Museum (England) established

1852 – Victoria and Albert Museum founded

1852 – James Mitchell Geology Museum established

1852 – Germanisches Nationalmuseum established

1852 – Bijbels Museum founded

1853 – Kolumba founded

1853 – Royal Norwegian Navy Museum established

1854 – Drents Museum established

1854 – Grand Rapids Public Museum established

1854 – Museum of Irish Industry founded

1854 – Museum of London Antiquities itemized

1854 – National Museum of Natural History (Luxembourg) established

1854 – Musée Ingres established

1854 – Pio Cristiano Museum founded

1855 – New Royal Museum opened

1855 – Napier Museum established

1855 – Museum of Antiquities (Vilnius) established

1855 – Great Lakes Quilt Center Museum ?

1855 – Neues Museum (Berlin) established

1855 – Bavarian National Museum established

1855 – Albany Museum (South Africa) established

1855 – Dockyard Museum established

1855 – Dr. Bhau Daji Lad Museum establilshed

1855 – Appleton Cabinet built

1856 – Canadian Museum of History established

1856 – Tretyakov Gallery established

1856 – Chicago History Museum established

1856 – Natural History Museum (Ireland) established

1856 – National Portrait Gallery (London) established

1857 – Science Museum (London) established

1857 – vorarlberg museum established

1857 – Museum of Fine Arts and Lace of Alençon established

1857 – National Museum (Poznań) established

1858 – Egyptian Museum (Cairo) established

1858 – Harvard University Botanical Museum founded

1858 – Illinois Museum of Natural History founded

1858 – Maidstone Museum & Art Gallery established

1859 – Stralsund Museum of Cultural History established

1859 – Museum of Comparative Zoology founded

1859 – National Museum of Transylvanian History founded

1859 – ARoS Aarhus Kunstmuseum established

1859 – Torlonia Museum established

1860 – Nicholson Museum (Australia)

1860 – Oxford University Museum of Natural History founded

1860 – Montreal Museum of Fine Arts established

1860 – William Brown Library and Museum established

1860 – Museum of Gloucester opened

1860 – Salisbury Museum established

1860 – Zachęta established

1861 – Buffalo Museum of Science established

1861 – Museum Godeffroy established

1861 – Murano Glass Museum established

1861 – National Gallery of Victoria established

1861 – Alte Nationalgalerie established

1861 – African Museum of Lyon created

1861 – National Gallery of Victoria (Australia) established

1861 – Wallraf-Richartz Museum opened

1862 – National Museum (Warsaw) established

1862 – Frans Hals Museum established

1862 – Landesmuseum Württemberg founded

1862 – National Archaeological Museum (France) established

1862 – National Museum of Health and Medicine established

1862 – New Haven Museum established

1862 – Queensland Museum established

1862 – Raahe Museum established

1862 – University of Copenhagen Zoological Museum established

1863 – National Archaeological Museum of the Marche region established

1863 – Guayaquil Municipal Museum origins

1863 – National Museum of Iceland established

1863 – Museum Fodor established

1863 – Aalborg Historical Museum established

1864 – Tropenmuseum established

1864 – Lloyd Library and Museum started

1864 – Trondheim Kunstmuseum established

1864 – National Gallery of Ireland established

1864 – Museum of Textiles (Lyon) established

1864 – Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center established

1865 – Museo Archeologico Ostiense built

1865 – Bargello opened as a National Museum

1865 – Curtis Museum founded

1865 – Old Acropolis Museum established

1865 – Government Museum (Bangalore)

1865 – Lahore Museum established

1865 – Caucasian Museum ? converted into Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia

1866 – Peabody Museum of Natural History established

1866 – American Civil War Museum established

1866 – Swedish History Museum founded

1866 – Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology founded

1866 – National Museum of Scotland inaugurated

1866 – Regional Archeological Museum Antonio Salinas converted to a museum?

1867 – National Archaeological Museum (Madrid) established

1867 – Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova founded

1867 – Manchester Museum established

1868 – Kunstgewerbemuseum Berlin founded

1868 – Otago Museum established

1868 – Royal Albert Memorial Museum established

1868 – Musée Réattu established

1868 – Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History established

1868 – Bratislava City Museum established

1868 – Museum of Science and Industry in Kraków

1868 – Musée Crozatier established

1868 – Galatasaray Museum established

1868 – Archaeological Museum of the American University of Beirut

1868 – Museum Five Continents founded

1869 – Latvian Museum of National History established

1869 – American Museum of National History established

1869 – Leipzig Museum of Ethnography

1869 – Corcoran Gallery of Art founded

1869 – Museo Nazionale di San Marco established

1870 – Polish Museum (Rapperswil) established

1870 – Museum of Fine Arts (Boston) established

1870 – National Archaeological Museum (Florence) inaugurated

1870 – Smith College Museum of Art established

1870 – Canterbury Museum established

1871 – Kunsthistorisches Museum established

1871 – Kentucky Science Center established

1871 – National Museum of Nature and Science opened

1871 – Paisley Museum and Art Galleries established

1871 – University of Nebraska State Museum founded

1871 – UST Museum of Arts and Sciences

1871 – Crockert Art Museum built

1872 – Natural History Museum (Vienna) established

1872 – Tokyo National Museum established

1872 – V&A Museum of Childhood established

1872 – Polytechnic Museum established

1872 – Tromsø University Museum established

1872 – State Historical Museum established

1872 – Museum of Banat founded

1872 – East Slovak Museum established

1872 – A.S. Popov Central Museum of Communications established

1872 – Revoltella Museum founded

1873 – Cape Ann Museum founded

1873 – Wiltshire Museum established

1873 – Stedelijk Museum Alkmaar established

1873 – Colorado School of Mine Geology Museum established

1873 – Keswick Museum and Art Gallery established

1873 – Ethnological Museum of Berlin established

1874 – Bangkok National Museum established

1874 – Booth Museum of Natural History established

1874 – Clockmakers’ Museum established

1874 – Crime Museum established

1874 – Government Museum (Mathura) established

1874 – Museum De Lakenhal

1874 – Stirling Smith Art Gallery and Museum established

1874 – Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam established

1874 – Groninger Museum established

1874 – Bärkisches Museum established

1874 – Art Gallery of New South Wales established

1874 – Hereford Museum and Art Gallery established

1874 – Leipzig Museum of Applied Arts established

1874 – Museum für Kunst and Gewerbe Hamburg founded

1874 – Staatliche Graphische Sammlung München established

1875 – Museo Nacional de Antopología (Madrid) established

1875 – Carthage National Museum established

1875 – Christian Museum (Hungary) established

1875 – Dresen Museum of Ethnology established

1875 – Eton College Natural History Museum opened

1876 – Pigorini National Museum of Prehistory and Ethnography (Rome) established

1876 – McLean Museum and Art Gallery established

1876 – Museum of Ethnology (Vienna) established

1876 – Augusteum (Oldenburg) opened

1876 – Michael C. Carlos Museum established

1876 – Mount Holyoke College Art Museum established

1876 – Musée Jean de La Fontaine established

1876 – Norwegian Museum of Decorative Arts and Design established

1876 – Albert Hall Museum founded

1876 – Philadelphia Museum of Art established

1876 – Pigorini National Museum of Prehistory and Ethnography established

1877 – Vesterheim Museum was founded

1877 – Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier established

1877 – Stavanger Museum established

1877 – Plantin-Moretus Museum opened to the public

1877 – National Museum (Bloemfontein) established

1877 – National Museum of Colombo established

1877 – Museum of Slavonia established

1877 – Kutch Museum (India) established

1877 – Illinois State Museum established

1877 – Suermondt-Ludwig-Museum founded

1877 – Walker Art Gallery established

1877 – Manchester Art Museum established

1877 – New Gallery (Kassel) established

1877 – Rhode Island School of Design Museum established

1877 – National Museum of Ireland established

1877 – Musical Instrument Museum (Brussels) established

1878 – Sforza Castle Pinacoteca inaugurated

1878 – Stieglitz Museum of Applied Arts began by donation

1878 – National Gallery (Athens) established

1878 – Museum of Design (Zürich) established

1878 – Tenby Museum and Art Gallery established

1878 – Museum of the Risorgimento (Turin) established

1878 – Military Museum (Belgrade) established

1878 – Historical Museum (Frankfurt) established

1878 – Kurpfälzisches Museum established

1878 – Galleria Nazionale dell’Umbria established

1878 – Fonds national d’art contemporain established

1878 – Columbus Museum of Art established

1878 – Czartoryski Museum established

1878 – Musée d’Ethnographie du Trocadéro founded

1879 – National History Museum of Jamaica established

1879 – Museo Canario established

1879 – Stewartry Museum founded

1879 – Art Institute of Chicago established

1879 – Hiroshima City Ebayama Museum of Meteorology established

1879 – Guimet Museum established

1879 – Museo dell’Opera del Duomo (Siena) established

1879 – Saint Louis Art Museum founded

1879 – Museum of Fine Arts Bern established

1879 – Sukiennice Museum founded

1879 – Walker Art Center began

1879 – Archaeological Museum of Granada established

1879 – Derby Museum and Art Gallery established

1879 – Museum am Rothenbaum established

1879 – National Museum (Kraków) established

1880s – D’Arcy Thompson Zoology Museum established

1880 – Canadian War Museum established

1880 – Merrick Art Gallery founded

1880 – Chilean National Museum of Fine Arts established

1880 – Museum of Arts and Crafts (Zagreb) established

1880 – Musëe Carnavalet established

1880 – Lapworth Museum of Geology established

1880 – Flehite founded

1881 – Buckhorn Saloon & Museum (San Antonio) established

1881 – Staten Island Museum established

1881 – Kalamazoo Valley Museum established

1881 – Fries Scheepvaart Museum opened

1881 – Cincinnati Art Museum established

1881 – Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum founded

1881 – Natural History Museum (London) opened to the public

1881 – Art Gallery of South Australia established

1881 – Archaeological Civic Museum of Bologna founded

1882 – Portland Museum of Art founded

1882 – Princeton University Art Museum founded

1882 – Staatliches Museum Schwerin established

1882 – York Art Gallery established

1882 – Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek established

1882 – Redpath Museum established

1882 – Musée national des Monuments Français opened

1882 – Milwaukee Art Museum established

1882 – Holburne Museum established

1882 – National Historical Museum (Athens) established

1882 – Museum of Dacian and Roman Civilization founded

1882 – Milwaukee Public Museum established

1882 – Musée Grévin founded

1882 – Domvs Romana established

1882 – Cyprus Museum established

1882 – Musée Georges-Garret founded

1882 – Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia established

1883 – Minneapolis Institute of Art established

1883 – Indianapolis Museum of Art established

1883 – Detroit Institute of Arts established

1883 – Wereldmuseum founded

1883 – Saratoga Springs History Museum founded

1883 – Museum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte founded

1883 – Reading Museum established

1883 – Heraklion Archaeological Museum established

1883 – Dudley Museum and Art Gallery established

1884 – Musée Ariana established

1884 – Galleria Estense established

1884 – Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters opened

1884 – National Museum of Ancient Art established

1884 – Wolverhampton Art Gallery established

1884 – Pitt Rivers Museum established

1884 – Oak Hill & The Martha Berry Museum established

1884 – Dunedin Public Art Gallery founded

1884 – Bonnefantenmuseum established

1884 – Biblioteca Museu Víctor Balaguer established

1884 – Art Gallery of Ballarat established

1884 – German Museum of Books and Writing founded

1884 – Great North Museum: Hancock established

1884 – Les Arts Décoratifs formed

1884 – Aberdeen Art Gallery founded

1884 – Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (University of Cambridge)

1885 – National Museum of Ravenna established

1885 – Radishchev Art Museum opened

1885 – Funen’s Art Museum founded

1885 – Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery opened

1885 – Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery founded

1885 – Bavarian State Archaeological Collection

1885 – Epigraphical Museum established

1885 – Goethe-Nationalmuseum founded

1885 – Grosvenor Museum founded

1886 – Telfair Museums (Georgia) opened

1886 – Royal British Columbia Museum founded

1886 – Musée Valentin Haüy established

1886 – Museum of Danube Komarno opened

1886 – Museum of Anthropology (University of Athens) founded

1887 – Overseas Museum (Bremen) established

1887 – Bapu Museum (Vijayawada) created

1887 – Bankfield Museum established

1887 – Museo Nacional de Costa Rica

1887 – Museum of the City of Brussels

1887 – Ore Mountain Museum established

1887 – West Norway Museum of Decorative Art established

1887 – Randers Museum of Art founded

1887 – Atheneum established

1887 – Bendigo Art Gallery established

1887 – Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki founded ?

1887 – Albertinum established

1887 – University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology established

1888 – La Plata Museum inaugurated

1888 – Museo Civico Filangieri established

1888 – National Museum of Ethnography established

1888 – Ons’ Lieve Heer op Solder established

1888 – Newport Museum established

1888 – National Museum of the Union inaugurated

1888 – National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina established

1888 – Munich Stadtmuseum founded

1888 – Haslemere Educational Museum founded

1888 – Bardo National Museum (Tunis)

1888 – Civil War Museum of Philadelphia established

1888 – Ethnographic Museum Artis established

1888 – Museum für Angewandte Kunst (Cologne)

1888 – Watson Museum established

1888 – Leeds Art Gallery established

1888 – Satakunta Museum established

1889 – Whitworth Art Gallery established

1889 – Archaeological Museum of Syros established

1889 – Imperial Natural History Museum opened

1889 – Harvard Semitic Museum founded

1889 – Archaeological Museum of Elefsis established

1889 – Bishop Museum founded

1889 – Museum August Kestner founded

1889 – Paleontological Municipal Museum established

1889 – National Historical Museum (Argentina) established

1889 – National Museum of Natural History (Bulgaria) founded

1889 – Musée des beaux-arts de Morlaix opened

1889 – Scottish National Portrait Gallery established

1889 – Sarawak State Museum established

1889 – Nara National Museum established

1889 – Museo Provinciale di Torcello established

1889 – National Etruscan Museum established

1889 – National Roman Museum established

1889 – Beethoven House founded

1890 – Mahatma Phule Museum founded

1890 – Radya Pustaka Museum established

1890 – Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo established

1890 – Museo do Ipiranga established

1890 – Cabinet des estampes et des dessins founded

1890 – Danish Museum of Art & Design founded

1890 – Stiftsmuseum Maribo building completed

1891 – Wednesbury Museum and Art Gallery established

1891 – Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery established

1891 – Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum established

1891 – Confederate Memorial Hall Museum established

1891 – Museum of Copenhagen founded

1891 – Florida Museum of Natural History established

1891 – Clifton Park and Museum established

1891 – Istanbul Archeological Museums established

1891 – Western Australian Museum established

1891 – Fairbank Museum and Planetarium opened

1892 – Bowes Museum founded

1892 – Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth established

1892 – Portland Art Museum established

1892 – McLean County Museum of History established

1892 – Manor House Museum established

1892 – Cliffe Castle Museum established

1892 – Graeco-Roman Museum established

1892 – National Museum and Art Gallery (Trinidad) established

1892 – Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum founded

1892 – Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology created

1892 – University of Arizona Mineral Museum established

1893 – Harris Museum established

1893 – Field Museum of Natural History established

1893 – National Archaeology Museum (Portugal) founded

1893 – Arizona State Museum founded

1893 – Wells and Mendip Museum established

1893 – Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery opened

1893 – Georges Labit Museum founded

1893 – Horsham Museum founded

1893 – Arad Museum Complex established

1893 – Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments founded

1894 – Bowdoin College Museum of Art

1894 – Museo de Arte Moderno (Madrid) set up

1894 – Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts established

1894 – Château Ramezay converted into a museum

1894 – Logan Museum of Anthropology established

1894 – Bakhrushin Museum established

1894 – Basel Historical Museum opened

1894 – The Museum of the Confederacy founded

1894 – Norsk Folkemuseum established

1895 – Brooklyn Museum established

1895 – Philadelphia Commercial Museum established

1895 – de Young Museum established

1895 – Banff Park Museum established

1895 – New Jersey State Museum established

1895 – Museum of Natural History (Belgrade)

1895 – Palais Galliera founded

1895 – State Russian Museum established

1895 – Fogg Museum established

1895 – Queensland Art Gallery established

1895 – Newlyn Art Gallery opened

1895 – Geelong Art Gallery established

1896 – National Museum of Fine Arts (Buenos Aires) established

1896 – Museum Willet-Holthuysen established

1896 – Roger Williams Park Museum of Natural History and Planetarium founded

1896 – Northern Ostrobothnia Museum established

1896 – Powell-Cotton Museum started

1896 – Carnegie Museum of Art established

1896 – National Gallery of Denmark established

1896 – Museu Comarcal de Manresa created

1896 – Hall of Art (Budapest) founded

1896 – Carnegie International organized

1896 – Carnegie Museum of Natural History established

1897 – Musée Jenisch established

1897 – Musée Condé established

1897 – Kyoto National Museum established

1897 – Federico Eusebio Civic Museum of Archaeology and Natural Sciences (Alba) founded

1897 – The Open Air Museum established

1897 – Istanbul Naval Museum established

1897 – National Gallery of British Art founded

1897 – Peterborough Museum & Archives established

1897 – Everson Museum of Art founded

1897 – Parrish Art Museum established

1897 – Kyoto National Museum established

1898 – Swiss National Museum established

1898 – Musée Cernuschi founded

1898 – Richmond Art Museum established

1898 – Meffan Institute established

1898 – Worcester Art Museum established

1898 – Archäologisches Museum Hamburg established

1898 – Cape Fear Museum founded

1898 – Oregon Historical Society Museum established

1898 – Royal Museum for Central Africa established

1898 – The Valentine established

1898 – Ca’ Pesaro Museum established

1898 – Dittrick Museum of Medical History established

1898 – Museum of St Albans founded

1898 – Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología established

1899 – Historical Museum of the City of Kraków

1899 – The Wilson opened

1899 – Ottó Herman Museum founded

1899 – Odesa Fine Arts Museum established

1899 – National Art Museum of Ukraine established

1899 – Musée Dobrée founded

1899 – Finemore Art Museum established

1899 – Vorderasiatisches Museum founded

1899 – Vejle Museum of Art founded

1899 – Stockholm Music Museum founded

1899 – Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History founded

1899 – Museum of Ukrainian folk art established

1899 – Beaney House of Art and Knowledge established

1899 – Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture established

1899 – Brooklyn Children’s Museum established

1900 – Suvorov Museum founded

1900 – Musée historique de Haguenau

1900 – Cowper and Newton Museum opened

1900 – Victoria Art Gallery opened

1900 – Museum of Fine Art, Houston

1900 – Art Gallery of Ontario established

1900 – Die Neue Sammlung established

1901 – National Museum of the Philippines formed

1901 – Toledo Museum of Art established

1901 – Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum

1901 – Jersey City Museum starts

1901 – Alpineum debuted

1901 – Ruskin Museum established

1901 – Valdres Folkemuseum founded

1901 – Geneva Ethnography Museum established

1901 – Konya Archaeological Museum established

1901 – British Optical Association Museum founded

1901 – Bury Art Museum established

1901 – Ethnographic Museum (Belgrade) established

1901 – Dick Institute

1901 – Horniman Museum established

1901 – Phoebe A. Heart Museum of Anthropology founded

1901 – Musée Bonnat created

1902 – Russian Museum of Ethnography established

1902 – Asahikawa Museum of Sculpture established

1902 – Folkwant Museum founded

1902 – Gass Forest Museum established

1902 – San Telm Museoa established

1902 – Carnegie Museum of Montgomery County

1902 – Bursa Archaeological Museum established

1902 – Archaeological Museum of Epidaurus established

1902 – A.E. Seaman Mineral Museum established

1902 – Press Museum established

1902 – Kunstmuseum Solothurn established

1902 – Kgosi Sechele I Museum founded

1902 – Museum of Prehistoric Anthropology opened

1903 – Museum of Islamic Art (Cairo) established

1903 – Österreichische Galerie Belvedere established

1903 – New Britain Museum of American Art established

1903 – Musée Denys-Peuch founded

1903 – Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum established

1903 – Galleria Borghese established

1903 – Belgrade City Museum founded

1903 – Dallad Museum of Art established

1903 – Busch-Reisinger Museum established

1903 – Berkshire Museum established

1903 – Vest-Agder Museum Kristiansand established

1903 – Delphi Archaeological Museum established

1903 – Hertford Museum opened

1903 – Busch-Reisinger Museum established

1903 – New Bedford Whaling Museum established

1904 – Bode Museum (Berlin) construction completed

1904 – West Berkshire Museum established

1904 – Juan B. Ambrosetti Museum of Ethnography established

1904 – Museum Enschedé founded

1904 – Museum der Weltkulturen founded

1904 – Evansville Museum of Arts, History, and Science established

1904 – Mansfield Museum opened

1904 – Jewish Museum (Manhattan) established

1904 – Egyptian Geological Museum established

1904 – Dorman Museum established

1904 – Archaeological Museum of Delos established

1904 – Sugar Museum (Berlin) established

1904 – Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences opened

1905 – Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo established

1905 – National Museum Cardiff established

1905 – Musée des Arts Décoratifs (Paris) established

1905 – High Museum of Art established

1905 – Latvian National Museum of Art founded

1905 – Cedar Rapids Museum of Art established

1905 – ASTRA National Museum Complex established

1905 – Lviv National Museum established

1905 – Musée de Die established

1905 – National Coach Museum established

1905 – Musée del’Armèe established

1905 – Museu de la Garrotxa opens to the public

1905 – Rock Island Arsenal Museum established

1905 – Albright-Knox Art Gallery established

1905 – Gibbes Museum of Art established

1906 – Museum of Fine Art (Budapest)

1906 – Cuming Museum opened

1906 – Jewish Museum in Prague established

1906 – Muzeum Archidiecezjalne w Krakowie established

1906 – Musée dauphinois established

1906 – Musée dauphinois established

1906 -Louisiana State Museum established

1906 – Morgan Library & Museum established

1906 – Royal Saskatchewan Museum established

1907 – Limerick City Museum established

1907 – Zagreb City Museum established

1907 – Musée alsacien (Strasbourg) opened

1907 – Southwest Museum of the American Indian opened

1907 – Peshawar Museum established

1907 – Museo Mitre established

1907 – McGregor Museum established

1907 – Dock Museum established

1907 – Dat ole Huus founded

1907 – Lviv National Art Gallery established

1907 – Art Gallery of Southwestern Manitoba established

1907 – Museo Francesco Borgogna established

1907 – Elisabet Ney Museum established

1908 – Zunfthaus zur Meisen established

1908 – Westminster Abbey Museum established

1908 – Uganda Museum established

1908 – National Palace Museum of Korea established

1908 – National Taiwan Museum established

1908 – Skagens Museum established

1908 – Musée d’Ennery inaugurated

1908 – Art Gallery of Nova Scotia established

1908 – Allen County Museum established

1908 – Baxter House (Maine) opened as a museum

1908 – Carmarthenshire County Museum established

1908 – Coptic Museum established

1908 – Everhart Museum established

1908 – Museum of Vertebrate Zoology established

1908 – Hans Christian Andersen Museum opened

1908 – Worthing Museum and Art Gallery established

1908 – Leibieghaus converted to sculpture museum

1909 – Chhatrapti Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya Museum (India) established

1909 – National Museum of Korea established

1909 – Newark Museum established

1909 – Armitt Museum founded

1909 – Estonian National Museum and Archive Library founded

1909 – Estonian National Museum founded

1909 – Houston Museum of Natural Science established

1909 – Przypkowscy Clock Museum made public

1909 – Keats-Shelley Memorial House established

1909 – Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de Asunción established

1909 – Sicilian Ethnographic Museum Giueppe Pitrè established

1909 – University of Michigan Museum of Art established

1909 – State Heraldic Museum founded

1909 – Kunsthalle Mannheim established

1910 – Pergamon Museum (Berlin) established

1910 – Cork Public Museum opened

1910 – Grand Rapids Art Museum established

1910 – National Museum of Natural History (Washington, D.C.) established

1910 – Los Angeles County Museum of Art established

1910 – DAR Museum established

1910 – Modern Art Gallery Sant’Anna established

1910 – Fort Smith Museum of History established

1910 – Sarnath Museum established

1910 – Varendra Research Museum established

1910 – Musée d’Art et d’Histoire (Geneva) established

1910 – Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall and Museum established

1910 – Nairobi National Museum of Kenya established

1910 – Oceanographic Museum of Monaco inaugurated

1910 – Plymouth City Museum and Art Gallery established

1911 – Pelizaeus Museum established

1911 – Chilean National History Museum established

1911 ? – Helsinki City Museum established

1911 – Holbæk Museum established

1911 – Pokrajinski muzej Koper founded

1911 – Linden Museum established

1911 – New Orleans Museum of Art established

1911 – National Museum of Contemporary Art (Portugal) established

1911 – National Museum of Visual Art (Uruguay) established

1911 – Rembrandt House Museum established

1911 – National Museum of the Royal Navy (Portsmouth) established

1912 – Pushkin Museum construction completed

1912 – Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto) established

1912 – Newport Art Museum founded

1912 – Delaware Art Museum founded

1912 – Museo Nacional de Artes Decorativas established

1912 – Netherlands Open Air Museum established

1912 – Museum of the Peaceful Arts established

1912 – Yamaguchi Prefectural Museum opened

1912 – Theatre Museum in the Court Theatre established

1912 – Rochester Museum and Science Center established

1912 – German Hygiene Museum established

1912 – Bruce Museum of Arts and Science established

1912 – Jamtli established

1912 – Aswan Museum opened

1912 – London Museum opened

1912 – Rischmannshof Heath Museum established

1912 – Hull Maritime Museum established

1913 – Cleveland Museum of Art established

1913 – Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de La Habana established

1913 – Musée Jacquemart-André established

1913 – Kunsthalle Königsberg established

1913 – Arnot Art Museum established

1913 – Morris Museum established

1913 – Museo Teatrale alla Scala established

1913 – Museu de Belles Arts de València established

1913 – A.D.Buck Museum of Science and History established

1913 – Bangladesh National Museum established

1913 – Boston Children’s Museum established

1913 – Mykolayiv Regional Museum of Local History established

1913 – Regional Museum of local lore of Mykolaiv established

1913 – Post & Tele Museum established

1913 – Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County established

1914 – Byzantine and Christian Museum established

1914 – The Old Town opened

1915 – Museum of Otlenia established

1915 – San Diego Museum of Man established

1916 – National Museum of Finland opened to the public

1916 – Mercer Museum construction completed

1917 – Imperial War Museum established

1920 – History Museum of Armenia established

1921 – Museum of Anatolian Civilizations established

1921 – Baroda Museum & Picture Gallery opened

1921 – Dadiani Palace fully converted into a museum

1922 – Honolulu Museum of Art established

1922 – National Museum of Afghanistan established

1923 – Islamic Museum (Jerusalem) established

1924 – Tapkapi Palace Museum established

1924 – National Folk Museum of Korea established

1924 – Tarquinia National Museum established

1925 – National Palace Museum established

1926 – National Science Museum (Korea) established

1926 – National Museum of Iraq

1927 – Minnesota Museum of American Art established

1928 – Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum established

1929 – Museo Municipal de Bellas Artes de Santa Cruz de Tenerife built

1929 – Buyeo National Museum (Korea) established

1929 – Reading Public Museum opened to the public

1930s – Duggan Cronin Gallery established

1931 – Museum Boerhaave established

1931 – Fine Arts Museum Basel

1931 – Flemish Museum of Art established

1933 – Jewish Museum (Berlin)

1936 – Osaka City Museum of Fine Arts established

1937 – National Gallery of Art (Washington, D.C.)

1937 – National Museum of Iran established

1937 – Musée de l’Homme established

1939 – Nizami Museum of Azerbaijani Literature established

1939 – Gold Museum (Bogota) established

1943 – Mather Museum of World Cultures founded

1945 – Gyeongju National Museum (Korea) established

1947 – Museum of Anthropology at UBC established

1948 – University of Queensland Anthropology Museum founded

1948 – The David Collection (Copenhagen) established

1949 – National Museum (New Delhi) established

1951 – Salar Jung Museum (india) established

1952 – Rietberg Museum opened

1952 – Getty Villa (California) established

1952 – Shanghai Museum established

1953 – Tribal Research Institute Museum established

1954 – Fujita Art Museum opened to the public

1955 – Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum established

1955 – National Museum of History (Taiwan) established

1957 – Museum of Musical Instruments (Milan) founded

1957 – National Museum of Oriental Art (Italy) established

1958 – Georgian National Center of Manuscripts founded

1959 – Museo de Arte de Ponce established

1959 – Musseo Archeologico Nazionale d’Abruzzo founded

1960s – Besser Museum for Northeast Michigan founded

1960 – Gotoh Museum established

1961 – Museum Kunstpalast established

1961 – Lima Art Museum inaugurated

1962 – National Museum of Ethnology (Portugal) established

1964 – National Museum of Anthropology (Mexico) established

1964 – South Sea Islands Museum established

1964 – Ninja Museum of Igaryu (Japan) established

1964 – Anahuacalli Museum established

1964 – Archaeological Museum and Portrait Gallery set up

1964 – COSI Columbus

1964 – Hagia Sophia (Trabzon) turned into a museum

1964 – National Institution Museum (Kumanovo) established

1964 – Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe established

1964 – Franklin Mineral Museum established

1964 – Galt Museum & Archives established

1964 – Museum of the History of Science of the City of Geneva established

1964 – Doncaster Museum and Art Gallery established

1964 – Northern Life Museum established

1964 – New England Wireless and Steam Museum established

1964 – Mineralogical Museum (University of Delaware) created

1964 – Yamagata Museum of Art opened

1965 – Israel Museum (Jerusalem) established

1965 – Fortaleza San Felipe converted into a museum

1966 – Museum of Islamic Art (Ghazni) established

1967 – National Gallery of Australia established

1967 – Ulster Folk and Transport Museum established

1968 – Masaki Art Museum (Japan) opened

1969 – Viking Ship Museum (Roskilde) established

1970 – Little World Museum of Man established

1970 – Moesgaard Museum established

1971 – Dubai Museum established

1972 – Wellington Museum established

1973 – Museum of Dominican Man established

1973 – Museo de las Casas Reales established

1973 – Father Sebastian Englert Anthropological Museum founded

1974 – Walter Roth Museum of Anthropology established

1974 – Museum for Islamic Art (Jerusalem) established

1974 – National Gallery of Jamaica established

1974 – National Museum of Ethnology (Japan) established

1975 – Luxor Museum established

1975 – Martin Gusinde Anthropological Museum established

1976 – Berndt Museum of Anthropology established

1976 – Museu Nacional de Antropologia (Angola) founded

1976 – Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography established

1976 – Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s Mausoleum Site Museum (China) first excavated

1976 – University of Queensland Art Museum established

1977 – El Paso Museum of Archaeology established

1977 – National Museum of Art (Osaka) opens to the public

1978 – Anthropological Museum of Petralona

1980 – National Museum of Australia established

1981 – Art Museum of the University of Memphis established

1982 – Museum of Oriental Ceramics (Osaka) established

1982 – Kubosō Memorial Museum of Arts (Izumi) opened

1983 – National Hellenic Museum (Chicago) established

1983 – Ligny Tower renovated into a museum

1984 – Jinju National Museum (Korea) opened

1984 – Museu da Lourinhã

1984 – Museum of Aidone inaugurated

1985 – Liberty Osaka founded

1986 – Käthe-Kollwitz-Museum (Berlin) established

1986 – Museo de Antropología de Xalapa (Mexico) opened

1986 – Musée d’Orsay established

1987 – Cheongju National Museum opened

1987 – Yuki Museum of Art established

1987 – Deutsches Historisches Museum established

1988 – Museum of Jurassic Technology established

1988 – Museum of Moving Image (New York) established

1988 – Bahrain National Museum founded

1989 – Osaka Science Museum established

1990 – Vasa Museum established

1990 – Jeonju National Museum established

1990 – Eva Klabin House Museum established

1991 – Australian National Maritime Museum established

1993 – Museum of East Asian Art (Bath) established

1994 – Daegu National Museum (Korea)

1994 – Abington Park Museum established

1995 – Museum of Sydney established

1995 – Santa Maria della Scala (Siena) opened as a museum

1995 – Singapore Art Museum established

1996 – Museum of the Prehistory of Tuscia and of the Rocca Farnese opened

1997 – Asian Civilizations Museum (Singapore) established

1997 – Osaka Castle renovated into a museum

1997 – Sharjah Art Museum inaugurated

1998 – Bait Al Zubair established

1998 – South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology established

1998 – Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia established

1998 – River and Rowing Museum established

1998 – Gimhae National Museum opened

1999 – Museum of Islamic Ceramics established

1999 – Natural Science Museum of Valencia established

1999 – Museum of Cultural History (Oslo) established

2000 – Museum of Lebanese Prehistory established

2000 – Museum of Prehistoric Thera

2001 – Jeju National Museum (Korea) opened

2001 – Ghibli Museum established

2001 – Shanghai Science and Technology Museum established

2001 – Archaeological Museum of Populonia

2002 – National Museum of Prehistory (Taiwan)

2002 – Chuncheon National Museum (Korea) opened

2003 – National Museum of China (Beijing) established

2004 – Fortaleza San Luis converted into a museum

2004 – Museum of World Culture (Sweden) established

2005 – Kyushu National Museum established

2006 – Museum of the Ara Pacis established

2006 – Quai Branly Museum opened

2007 – Nafsika Stamoulis Hellenic Museum Limited (Melbourne) established

2007 – Museo dei Fori Imperiali established

2008 – Museum of Oriental Art (Turin) established

2008 – Museum of Islamic Art (Doha) established

2008 – Peranakan Museum (Singapore) established

2009 – Acropolis Museum established

2010 – Museum of Anthropology opened

2011 – Zeugma Mosaic Museum established

2011 – Museum of Sacred, Magical, and Medicinal Plants established

2012 – Korea National Maritime Museum established

2014 – Musée des Confluences opened

2019 – Grand Egyptian Museum under construction, potentially opening this year

Five Oldest Museums

Vatican Museum

This article is a short article based off of my ‘Establishment Dates of Museums’ article. There may be museums older than the five I have included, however, these five are the oldest that I have been able to somewhat confirm.

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Sistine Chapel

1 – Vatican Museums (1)

The Vatican Museums are a collection of Christian and art museums which display around 20,000 out of their total appx. 70,000 artifacts. The museums are located within the Vatican City and typically have their origins traced to a marble sculpture from 1506. If you Google when the Vatican Museums were established, you may find that Google says ‘1506’. This establishment date is due to the discovery of ‘Laocoön and His Sons’, which has been on display in the Vatican ever since.

The Museum Christianum was established sometime after the 1700s. Museo Pio-Clementino founded in 1771. Museo Chiaramonti was established in the early 1800s. Museo Gregorian Etrusco was established in 1836. The Lateran Museum was established in 1854. The Vatican Historical Museum established was in 1973. A few notable items in these museums are the Gallery of Maps, The Sistine Chapel, and the Raphael Rooms.

Venice National Archaeological Museum

2 – Venice National Archaeological Museum (2)

The National Archaeological Museum was established by Cardinal Domenico Grimani in 1523. This museum in Venice contains a vast collection of Roman and Greek items. Today, there are Assyro-Babylonian, Greek, Tuscan, Roman, and Egyptian items on display. It is the second oldest recognized museum.

Uffizi

3 – Uffizi Gallery (3)

The Galleria degli Uffizi is an art museum in Italy. This gallery was established in 1581. It has been open to the public since 1765. It officially became a museum in 1865. Some notable artists’ works which are featured in this museum are Michelangelo’s, Raphael’s, da Vinci’s, and Rembrandt’s.

Natural History Museum of the University of Pisa

4 – Natural History Museum of the University of Pisa (4)

The Natural History Museum of the University of Pisa was established by Grand Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany in 1596. Since the 1970s, this museum has been in the Carthusian Monastery of Calci. It is a part of the Athenaeum Museum System. Some of the galleries in the museums include an aquarium, a dinosaur court gallery, a whale gallery, and a mineral gallery.

Royal Armouries Museum, Leeds

5 – Royal Armouries Museum, London (5)

The origins of the Royal Armouries Museum in London are traced to an inventory dated to 1660. The museum was visited throughout the 17-20th centuries before officially being established in 1983. It is one of the oldest institutions of the Tower and London.

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References;

(1) – http://www.museivaticani.va/content/museivaticani/en/musei-del-papa/storia.html

(2) – https://www.venetoinside.com/attraction-tickets-in-veneto/tickets/national-archaeological-museum-of-venice/

(3) – https://www.florence.net/history-uffizi-gallery.asp

(4) – https://www.msn.unipi.it/en/

(5) – https://royalarmouries.org/about-us/history-of-the-royal-armouries/history-of-the-royal-armouries-in-the-tower-of-london/

Bibliography of Fomenko’s New Chronology

Anatoly Fomenko

This is the current list of books about the New Chronology authored by Anatoly Fomenko.

There are a significant number of titles that contain the same or improved information from previous publications. For example; the 22 e-book series is a reorganized edition of the 7 volume series (2003). And the new edition of the 7 volume series (2013-2015) is practically the same of the 7 volume series from 2003. If you notice any New Chronology publications missing from the lists below, please let me know.

Other publications by A. T. Fomenko can be found here.

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Here is a graph that I made on July 6th, 2020. It shows how many books which Fomenko helped author have been printed by year. There are 129 titles entered in total. The first entry is from 1994 and the last entry is from 2020. That is about 129 titles published over 27 years, which averages to about 4.78 titles per year, or 1.2 titles every 3 months. Again, many of these titles repeat the same content as older ones, and so this number does not represent how often new content is published by Fomenko and his co-authors.

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Bibliography ordered by series:

1994 – Empirico-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Materials and Its Application to Historical Dating Volume 1 and Volume 2

Russia and Rome

1997 – Russia and Rome: Do We Correctly Understand the History of Europe and Asia (Books 1 and 2)

2001 – Russia and Rome: Do We Correctly Understand the History of Europe and Asia (Books 3, 4, and 5)

2002-2003 – Russia and Rome, new edition (All previous books covered)

2007-2008 – Russia and Rome: Sensational Hypothesis of World History (Volume One) and New Chronology. Russian Horde Empire (Volume 2)

2010 – Russian and Rome (Seven Volumes).

2017 – Russia and Rome: How It All Began

2018 – Russia and Rome: Christ

2019 – Russian and Rome: After Christ

History: Fiction or Science?
English Series (2003)

Volume One: History Bases
Book One: Numbers Against Lies

Volume Two: Methods
Book One: Antiquity – This Is Medieval
Book Two: Change the Dates – Everything Changes

Volume Three: Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest
Book One: Stars Evidence
Book Two: Celestial Calendar of the Ancients

Volume Four: New chronology of Russia (Russia. England. Byzantium. Rome)
Book One: New Chronology of Russia
Book Two: Secret of Russian History

Volume Five: Russia = Horde. Ottomans = Atamans. Europe. China. Japan. The Etruscans. Egypt. Scandinavia
Book One: Empire
Book Two: The Coloring of the Kingdom

New Chronology Seven Volumes New Edition
Russian Series (2013-2015)

Volume One: History Bases
Book One: Numbers Against Lies

Volume Two: Methods
Book One: Antiquity – This Is Medieval
Book Two: Change the Dates – Everything Changes

Volume Three: Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest
Book One: Stars Evidence
Book Two: Celestial Calendar of the Ancients

Volume Four: New chronology of Russia (Russia. England. Byzantium. Rome)
Book One: New Chronology of Russia
Book Two: Secret of Russian History

Volume Five: Russia = Horde. Ottomans = Atamans. Europe. China. Japan. The Etruscans. Egypt. Scandinavia
Book One: Empire
Book Two: The Coloring of the Kingdom

Volume Six:
Book One: Bible Russia
Book Two: Development of America Russia-Horde
Book Three: Seven Wonders of the World

Volume Seven:
Book One: Western Myth
Book Two: Russian Roots of “Ancient” Latin

Dating the Ancient Zodiacs

2002 – The New Chronology of Egypt

2003 – History: Fiction or Science? Volume Three

2009 – Ancient Zodiacs of Egypt and Europe

2009 – Russian and Italian Zodiacs

2010 – Vatican

2011 – Ancient Celestial Calendar

2012 – Stars Witness

2012 – Divine Comedy on the Eve of the End of the World

2014 – Dr. Faust. Christ Through the Eyes of the Antichrist

2019 – Roksolana

A New Chronology for All

2007 – 1: Russia and the Horde

2007 – 2: The Great Troubles

2007 – 3: 400 Years of Deception

2007 – 4: Truth Can Be Calculated

2007 – 5: Easter

2008 – 6: Trojan War in the Middle Ages

2008 – 7: Tatar-Mongol Yoke: Who won whom?

2009 – 8: Slavic Conquest of the World

2010 – 9: Caliph Ivan

2009 – 10: Piebald Horde: History of China

Golden Books

2002 – The New Chronology of Egypt

2004 – Old Maps of the Great Russian Empire

2004 – New Chronology of India

2004 – Tsar of the Slavs

2005 – Ancient Zodiacs of Egypt and Europe

2005 – The Beginning of Horde Russia

2006 – The Baptism of Rus

2008 – Christ and Russia through the Eyes of the “Ancient Greeks”

2008 – Forgotten Jerusalem

2008 – The Lost Gospel

2009 – Christ was Born in Crimea

2009 – Conquest of America

2009 – Moscow in Light of the New Chronology

2009 – Tsar Rome Between the Oka and Volga Rivers

2009 – Egyptian, Russian, and Italian Zodiacs

2009 – Heracles

2009 – A Split of the Empire

2009 – The Prophet, The Conqueror

2010 – Shahnameh

2010 – Vatican

2011 – What Shakespeare Really Wrote

How It Was In Reality

2012 – How It Was In Reality

2013 – Wonder of the World in Russia near Kazan

2014 – Dr. Faust

2015 – Don Quixote or Ivan Grozny

2015 – God of War

2016 – The Last Way of the Holy Family

2016 – Buddha and Krishna

2017 – Every Story Wants To Be Told

2017 – Ulenshpiegel and Gulliver

2018 – Utopia and Socialism

2018 – Incas Came to America from Russia-Horde

2018 – Barrow of Christ and the Virgin

2020 – The Nightingale the Robber, Buyan Island and Crimea

2020 – Exhibition Jerusalem

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Complete Chronological Bibliography:

1994 – Empirico-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Materials and Its Application to Historical Dating Volume 1 and Volume 2

1997 – Russia and Rome (Books 1 and 2)

2001 – Russia and Rome (Books 3, 4, and 5)

2002 – The New Chronology of Egypt

2002-2003 – Russia and Rome New Edition (Two Volumes)

2003 – History: Fiction or Science? (Seven Volumes)

2003 – Apocalypse as Seen by Astronomy

2003 – Astronomy vs History

2003 – Crusades and Exoduses

2003 – The Great Wall of China Hoax

2003 – The Horde Pacific to Atlanta

2003 – The Issue with Antiquity

2003 – The Issue with Baptism of Russia

2003 – The Issue with British History

2003 – The Issue with Chinese Astronomy

2003 – The Issue with Chronology

2003 – The Issue with the Czar’s Helmet

2003 – The Issue with Dark Ages

2003 – The Issue with Ivan the Terrible

2003 – The Issue with Mongols

2003 – The Issue with Russian History

2003 – The Issue with Russian Tartary

2003 – The Issue with Tamerlane

2003 – The Issue with Troy

2003 – The USA has Issues with Maps of the 18th Century

2003 – Maps and Coins vs History

2003 – Swords and Mantles Tell History

2003 – The Testament of Peter the Great

2003 – New Chronology of Egypt 1

2004 – New Chronology of India

2004 – Tsar of Slavs 1st Edition

2005 – Ancient Zodiacs of Egypt and Europe 1

2005 – The Beginning of Horde Russia

2006 – The Baptism of Russia

2007 – 5: Easter

2007 – 2: The Great Troubles

2007 – New Chronology of Egypt 2

2007 – 1:Russia and the Horde

2007 – 4: Truth Can Be Calculated

2007 – Tsar of Slavs 2nd Edition

2007 – 3: 400 Years of Deception

2007-2008 – Russia and Rome (Two Volumes)

2008 – Christ and Russia through the Eyes of the “Ancient Greeks”

2008 – Forgotten Jerusalem

2008 – Lost Gospel

2008 – 7: Tatar-Mongol Yoke: Who Conquered Whom

2008 – 6: Trojan War in the Middle Ages

2009 – A Split of the Empire

2009 – Ancient Zodiacs of Egypt and Europe 2

2009 – Christ was Born in Crimea

2009 – Conquest of America

2009 – Count of Years from Christ and Calendar Disputes

2009 – Czar Rome Between the Oka and Volga Rivers

2009 – Egyptian, Russian, and Italian Zodiacs

2009 – Heracles

2009 – Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great

2009 – Moscow in the Light of New Chronology

2009 – Russian and Italian Zodiacs

2009 – The Number of the Beast

2009 – 10: Piebald Horde. The History of Ancient China

2009 – 8: Slavic Conquest of the World

2009 – The Prophet, the Conquerer

2010 – The Expulsion of the Kings

2010 – Et-Ruski, A Mystery that They Don’t Want to Unravel

2010 – 9: Caliph Ivan

2010 – Shahnameh

2010 – The Secret of the Colosseum

2010 – Vatican

2010 – Where Are You, Kulikovo Field?

2010 – 400 Years of Deception

2010 – Russia and Rome: Seven Volumes

2011 – The First Wonder of the World

2011 – Mr. Novgorod the Great

2011 – What Shakespeare Really Wrote

2012 – How It Was In Reality

2012 – Divine Comedy on the Eve of the End of the World

2012 – Purgachev and Suvorov

2013 – Base of Rome

2013 – The Wonder of the World in Russia near Kazan

2013-2015 – The Baptism of Russia

2013-2015 – Christ and Russia through the Eyes of the “Ancient” Greeks

2013-2015 – Christ was Born in Crimea

2013-2015 – Cossacks-arias: from Russia to India

2013-2015 – Egyptian, Russian, and Italian Zodiacs

2013-2015 – Forgotten Jerusalem: Istanbul in the Light of New Chronology

2013-2015 – Heracles: “Ancient” Greek Myth of the 16th Century

2013-2015 – Lost Evangelia

2013-2015 – Old Maps of the Great Russian Empire

2013-2015 – The Prophet, The Conquerer. Biography of Mahomet

2013-2015 – Royal Rome Rivers Oka and Volga

2013-2015 – Shahnameh: Iran’s Chronicle of the Great Empire

2013-2015 – Split of the Empire

2013-2015 – Tsar of Slavs 3rd Edition

2013-2015 – Seven Volume Series in Russian (New Chronology New Edition)

2014 – Dr. Faust. Christ through the eyes of the Antichrist

2015 – Don Quixote or Ivan the Terrible

2015 – God of War

2016 – The Last Path of the Holy Family

2016 – Buddha and Krishna

2017 – Every Story Wants to be Told

2017 – Russia and Rome: How It All Began

2017 – Uleshpigel and Gulliver

2018 – Russia and Rome: Christ

2018 – Barrow of Christ and the Virgin

2018 – Incas Came to America from Russia-Horde

2018 – Utopia and Socialism

2019 – Roxolana

2019 – Rus and Rome

2019 – Russia and Rome: After Christ

2020 – The Nightingale the Robber, Buyan Island and Crimea

2020 – Exhibition Jerusalem

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References:

[1] – www.chronologia.org

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