Bibliology

Bibliology’s Definitions

Webster’s 1828 Dictionary does not include a definition for bibliology.

Merriam Webster’s Dictionary defined bibliology as:[1]
1 – “the history and science of books as physical objects BIBLIOGRAPHY”
2 – “often capitalized the study of the theological doctrine of the Bible”

Dictionary.com defined it as:[2]
“a branch of library science dealing with the history, physical description, comparison, and classification of books and other works.”

Bibliology’s Etymology

1800-1810 – Allegedly the earliest known use of the word bibliology.
“biblio- + -logy”[2]

1804 – Allegedly the earliest known use of the word bibliology. It was defined as number 1 above.[1]

1804 – It meant “book-lore”, “from French bibliologie; see biblio- + -logy”[3]

By 1871 – It meant “Biblical literature”[3]

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References:

[1] – “Bibliology.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bibliology. Accessed 9 Oct. 2020.

[2] – https://www.dictionary.com/browse/bibliology?s=t. Accessed 9 Oct. 2020.

[3] – https://www.etymonline.com/word/bibliology. Accessed 9 Oct. 2020.

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Cartography

Cartography’s Definitions

Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary defined cartography as: “the science or art of making maps”[1]

Dictionary.com defined it as: “the production of maps, including construction of projections, design, compilation, drafting, and reproduction.”[2]

Lexico defined it as: “The science or practice of drawing maps.”[3]

Cartography’s Etymology

c.1847 – The allegedly earliest known use, defined as above.
“French cartographie, from carte card, map + -graphie -graphy”[1]

1855-1860 –  “<Latin c(h)art(a) carte + -o- + -graphy”[2]

“Mid 19th century from French cartographie, from carte ‘map, card’ (see card) + -graphie (see -graphy).”[3]

Cartography’s History

“In ancient Greece, world maps appeared in the sixth century BC when philosophers and mathematicians were attempting to overturn the old mythical schemes and to construct rational methods of the cosmos.”
– Christian Jacob (1996)[4, p.194]

“Mappaemundi in the Western Middle Ages were linked with a vision of God, looking at the world from God’s place and looking at God through the world he created.”
– Christian Jacob (1996)[4, p.194]

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References:

[1] – “Cartography.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cartography. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

[2] – https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cartography?s=t. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

[3] – https://www.lexico.com/definition/anthropology. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

[4] – Jacob, Christian. “Toward a Cultural History of Cartography.” Imago Mundi, vol. 48, 1996, pp. 191–198. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/1151273. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

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Codicology

Codicology’s Definitions

Merriam Webster’s Dictionary defined it as: “the study of manuscripts as cultural artifacts for historical purposes”[1]

Dictionary.com defined it as: “the study of manuscripts”[2]

Lexico defined it as: “The study of manuscripts and their interrelationships.”[3]

Codicology’s Etymology

1950s – “from French codicologie, from Latin codex, codic- (see codex).”[3]

1953 – Allegedly the first known use.
“Latin codic-, codex + -o- + English -logy[1]

20th century – “via French from Latin codic-, codex + -logy”[2]

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References:

[1] – “Codicology.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/codicology. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

[2] – https://www.dictionary.com/browse/codicology. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

[3] – https://www.lexico.com/definition/codicology. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

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Etymology

Etymology’s Definitions

Samuel Johnson’s 1755 “A Dictionary of the English Language” does not define etymology.

Webster’s 1828 Dictionary defined it as:[1]
1 – That part of philology which explains the origin and derivation of words, with a view to ascertain their radical or primary signification.
In grammar, etymology comprehends the various inflections and modifications of words, and shows how they are formed from their simple roots.
2 – The deduction of words from their originals; the analysis of compound words into their primitives.

Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary defined it as:[2]
1 – the history of a linguistic form (such as a word) shown by tracing its development since its earliest recorded occurrence in the language where it is found, by tracing its transmission from one language to another, by analyzing it into its component parts, by identifying its cognates in other languages, or by tracing it and its cognates to a common ancestral form in an ancestral language
2 – a branch of linguistics concerned with etymologies

Dictionary.com defined it as:[3]
1 – the derivation of a word.
2 – a chronological account of the birth and development of a particular word or element of a word, often delineating its spread from one language to another and its evolving changes in form and meaning.
3 – the study of historical linguistic change, especially as manifested in individual words.

Lexico defined it as:[4]
1 – The study of the origin of words and the way in which their meanings have changed throughout history.
1.1 – The origin of a word and the historical development of its meaning.

Etymology’s Etymology

“Late Middle English from Old French ethimologie, via Latin from Greek etumologia, from etumologos ‘student of etymology’, from etumon, neuter singular of etumos ‘true’.”[4]

1350-1400 – “Middle English, from Latin etymologia, from Greek etymología, equivalent to etymológ(os) “studying the true meanings and values of words” (étymo(s) “true” + lógos “word, reason”) + -ia noun suffix; see etymon, -y3

14th century – “14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1. Middle English ethimologie, from Anglo-French, from Latin etymologia, from Greek, from etymon + -logia -logy”[2]

Mid-15th century – “an account of the particular history of a word”[5]

1640s – “the linguistic science that investigates the origins of a word, its relationships with words in other languages, and its historical development in form and meaning” dates from the 1640s.”[4]

1640s – “a modern branch of linguistic science treating of the origin and evolution of words”[5]

“Ancient and medieval etymologies are mostly conjectures, puns, or folk etymologies, and are generally wildly incorrect.”[5]

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References:

[1] – http://webstersdictionary1828.com/Dictionary/etymology. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

[2] – “Etymology.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/etymology. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

[3] – https://www.dictionary.com/browse/etymology?s=t. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

[4] – https://www.lexico.com/definition/anthropology. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

[5] – https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=etymology. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

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Sciences And Humanities

The sciences and the humanities are two disciplines which are often discussed in opposition to each other. They themselves are each composed of multiple separate disciplines. Scientific disciplines typically include formal sciences, natural sciences, and social sciences. Humanistic disciplines typically includes subjects like art, history, and philosophy.

Over the past two hundred years, a great number of histories of scientific endeavors have been written, which seems odd to me as writing history is typically considered a humanistic endeavors, and barely any histories of humanistic endeavors have been written.

The History of the Sciences and Humanities

“In the field of the history of the natural sciences, overviews have been written at least since the nineteenth century (e.g. William Whewell’s well-known History of the Inductive Sciences). It may thus be surprising that no such history exists for the field of the humanities.”
– Rens Bod (2010)[1, p.7]

“The history of the humanities, or Geisteswissenschaften, lags far behind the historiography of the exact or natural sciences.”
– Michiel Leezenberg (2010)[1, p.17]

The modern sciences and humanities were founded mainly in the 19th century and up until this time there was very little difference between the two.[2, p.73] It was around this time that distinctions were established between the sciences and the humanities, between scientific research and classical texts. From there, the various divisions of the disciplines were applied retrospectively onto the past.[2, p.82] Prior to the 19th century, the sciences and humanities were inseparable, complimentary focuses. Since then, the role that the humanities played in the Scientific Revolution has become largely obscured.[2, p.84]

Today, the humanities and sciences are typically seen in contrast to one another, instead of being connected and interwoven.[3, p.27]

“…the humanities are deemed to be predicated on understanding (Verstehen), the sciences on explaining (Erklären).”
– Rens Bod, et al. (2014)[3, p.13]

Despite the influence of the idea in the above quote, the sciences and humanities developed in a complex way which isn’t accurately reflected by the model above.[3, p.13]

“…the humanities are no longer seen as the pinnacle of intellectual development but as a luxury pastime with little relevance for society and even less for economy.”
– Rens Bod, et al. (2014)[3, p.13]

Timeline

17th century – The debate about the schism between the sciences and humanities begins.[1, p.17]

c.1800 – The debate about the schism between the sciences and humanities stabilizes.[1, p.17]

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References:

[1] – Bod, Rens, et al., editors. The Making of the Humanities: Volume 1- Early Modern Europe. Amsterdam University Press, 2010. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt46n1vz. Accessed 6 Oct. 2020.

[2] – Bod, Rens, et al., editors. The Making of the Humanities: Volume II: From Early Modern to Modern Disciplines. Amsterdam University Press, 2012. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt45kdfw. Accessed 6 Oct. 2020.

[3] – Bod, Rens, et al., editors. The Making of the Humanities: Volume III: The Modern Humanities. Amsterdam University Press, 2014. JSTORwww.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt12877vs. Accessed 6 Oct. 2020.

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The Making of the Humanities Overview

The Making of the Humanities is an excellent three volume series that covers the development of the humanities from about 1400 to 2014. I’ve read through the volumes for the past few years and think this series contains an indispensable wealth of knowledge for both newcomers and seasoned veterans of historical studies.

This trilogy of books is the result of three conferences which were held in 2008, 2010, and 2012. The organization of the original conference started in 2007 and was largely undertaken by Peter van Ormondt and Karin Gigengack of the ILLC (Institute for Logic, Language & Computation).

The Making of the Humanities: Volume 1 – Early Modern Europe

MLA citation – Bod, Rens, et al., editors. The Making of the Humanities: Volume 1- Early Modern Europe. Amsterdam University Press, 2010. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt46n1vz. Accessed 6 Oct. 2020.

The Making of the Humanities: Volume II: From Early Modern to Modern Disciplines

MLA citation – Bod, Rens, et al., editors. The Making of the Humanities: Volume II: From Early Modern to Modern Disciplines. Amsterdam University Press, 2012. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt45kdfw. Accessed 6 Oct. 2020.

The Making of the Humanities: Volume III: The Modern Humanities

MLA citation – Bod, Rens, et al., editors. The Making of the Humanities: Volume III: The Modern Humanities. Amsterdam University Press, 2014. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt12877vs. Accessed 6 Oct. 2020.

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Culture

What is culture, or a culture?

“…those things which emanate from the mind itself: mathematics, mental constructs, epistemic frameworks, in short: culture.”
– Joep Leerssen (2012)[1, p.31]

Culture Definitions

Merriam-Webster defines culture as:[2]

1a – the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social groupalso the characteristic features of everyday existence (such as diversions or a way of life) shared by people in a place or time

1b – the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution or organization

1c – the set of values, conventions, or social practices associated with a particular field, activity, or societal characteristic

1d – the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations

2a – enlightenment and excellence of taste acquired by intellectual and aesthetic training

2b – acquaintance with and taste in fine arts, humanities, and broad aspects of science as distinguished from vocational and technical skills

3 – the act or process of cultivating living material (such as bacteria or viruses) in prepared nutrient media

4 – CULTIVATION, TILLAGE

5 – the act of developing the intellectual and moral faculties especially by education

6 – expert care and training

Culture Etymology

Merriam-Webster names the 15th century as the earliest known use of the word culture. It’s meaning was in accordance with definition #4 listed above.[2] This notion is supported by etymonline:

“mid-15c., “the tilling of land, act of preparing the earth for crops,” from Latin cultura “a cultivating, agriculture,” figuratively “care, culture, an honoring,” from past participle stem of colere “to tend, guard; to till, cultivate” (see colony). Meaning “the cultivation or rearing of a crop, act of promoting growth in plants” (1620s) was transferred to fish, oysters, etc., by 1796, then to “production of bacteria or other microorganisms in a suitable environment” (1880), then “product of such a culture” (1884).

The figurative sense of “cultivation through education, systematic improvement and refinement of the mind” is attested by c. 1500; Century Dictionary writes that it was, “Not common before the nineteenth century, except with strong consciousness of the metaphor involved, though used in Latin by Cicero.” Meaning “learning and taste, the intellectual side of civilization” is by 1805; the closely related sense of “collective customs and achievements of a people, a particular form of collective intellectual development” is by 1867.”[3]

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References:

[1] – Leerssen, Joep. “The Rise of Philology: The Comparative Method, the Historicist Turn and the Surreptitious Influence of Giambattista Vico.” The Making of the Humanities: Volume II: From Early Modern to Modern Disciplines, edited by Rens Bod et al., Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, 2012, pp. 23–36. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt45kdfw.4. Accessed 5 Oct. 2020.

[2] – https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture. Accessed 5 Oct. 2020.

[3] – https://www.etymonline.com/word/culture. Accessed 5 Oct. 2020.

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The Eyes of History

Chronology and geography have been called the eyes of history for a significantly long among of time. Sometimes history is considered to only have one eye, and typically it is either chronology or geography. Other “eyes” of history that have been listed are time and space.

Quotes

“Chronology is the eye of history.”
– Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)[3, p.23]

“Chronology is the eye of history.”
– Carlo Cattaneo (1801-1869)[5], [6]

“The saying that Geography and Chronology are the two “Eyes” of History has become so hackneyed an expression that we are apt to forget the rational “Mind” of the Observer behind them.”
– Edward A. Petherick (1904)[7, p.xxxi]

“The Benedictines had a saying, that chronology and geography are “The two eyes of History. They are aware also that any exact chronology must depend upon astronomy.”
– Edward Johnson (1904)[7, p.104]

“Chronology and Geography have been called the two eyes of History, without the use of which all is confusion and uncertainty.”
The Catholic Historical Review, vol. 2, no. 2, 1916[2, p.240]

“Jean Bodin, a French jurist who brought out in 1566 a pioneering manual on the method for studying history critically, was only one of many Renaissance thinkers who compared chronology to geography. He treated them as twin disciplines: “the two eyes of history,” as he and many others put it.”
– Anthony Grafton (2003)[1, p.79]

“Geography in early modern Europe was more than just ‘the eye of history’, as Ortelius phrased it.”
– Zur Shalev (2003)[9, p.73]

“Baudouin’s recommendations were especially embraced in the fields of geography and chronology. These disciplines – the proverbial two “eyes” of history – flourished in the late sixteenth century as scholars searched for means to understand the past without relying on the prejudiced narratives of historians.”
– Nicholas Popper (2011)[14, p.393]

“Abraham Ortelius famously was to refer to geography as the eye of history – he was by no means the only thinker of this period to connect the two in terms of that sort…”
– William Stenhouse (2012)[10, p.253]

“Conceiving of geography as ‘the eye of history’ as Ortelius wrote in the Parergon’s title page, and as necessary for the true understanding of history the cartographer makes claims regarding the visual character and scientific accuracy of maps as essential for the proper understanding of past events.”
– Monica Matei-Chesnoiu (2012)[11]

“Ever since antiquity, geography and chronology had been regarded as the two eyes of history, and both were now undergoing radical reassessments in the light of the recent voyages of discovery.”
– Jerry Brotton (2014)[16, p.242]

“In the preface to his Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Phillip II’s official cartographer Abraham Ortelius (d. 1598) repeated the standard saying, “geography is the eye of history.””
– Valeria A. Escauriaza López Fadul (2015)[13, p.44]

“Like Páez de Castro, Montano also believed that geography was the eye of history.”
– Valeria A. Escauriaza López Fadul (2015)[13, p.244]

“In the nineteenth century, an era in which geography was held to be the “eye of history,” books ranging from Bibles to exploration narratives included prominent fold-out maps.”
– RBLM (2015)[8]

“The traditional saying that geography and chronology are the eyes of history can be interpreted in two ways: they are (parts of) the nature of history, or they are tools that can be used to make history apprehensible.”
– Anne Eriksen (2015)[15, p.19]

“…as all historians know: “chronology is the eye of history”.”
– Gerard Gertoux (2016)[4, p.85]

“One eye of history is time; the other geography.”
– Anne Eriksen (2017)[12, p.183]

“As the two eyes of history, time and space were necessary tools for a proper understanding of it, but they were not themselves integral parts of history.”
– Anne Eriksen (2017)[12, p.184]

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References:

[1] – Grafton, Anthony. “Dating History: The Renaissance & the Reformation of Chronology.” Daedalus, vol. 132, no. 2, 2003, pp. 74–85. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/20027842. Accessed 4 Oct. 2020.

[2] – “Part I: The Auxiliary Sciences. II. Chronology.” The Catholic Historical Review, vol. 2, no. 2, 1916, pp. 240–243. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/25011427. Accessed 3 Oct. 2020.

[3] – Conklin, George W. “Conklin’s who Said That?: Being the Sources of Famous Sayings by Prof. Geo. W. Conklin …” https://books.google.com/books?id=7z9JAQAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed 19 Sept. 2020.

[4] – Gerard Gertoux. “80 Old Testament Characters of World History: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence”. 2016. https://books.google.com/books?id=sOS0CwAAQBAJ&pg=PA85&lpg=PA85&dq=%22chronology+is+the+eye+of+history%22&source=bl&ots=2ct75qPDyL&sig=ACfU3U3YBo4l4NzuBVHK_YyQwCNhOFzABA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiPx5TC9ZnsAhWGXM0KHXobBPsQ6AEwBnoECAcQAg#v=onepage&q=%22chronology%20is%20the%20eye%20of%20history%22&f=false. Accessed 4 Oct. 2020.

[5] – Guidi, Alessandro. “Social dimensions of time: A comparison between chronologies adopted in the literature, in the Museums and in the handbooks of History.” https://www.iipp.it/wp-content/9Guidi2.pdf. Accessed 19 Sept. 2020.

[6] – Mario, Jessie White. “ITALY, ROME, AND THE FRANCOPRUSSIAN WAR.” https://search.proquest.com/openview/9c40dc1039806832/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2743. Accessed 19 Sept. 2020.

[7] – Johnson, Edward. “The Rise of English Culture.” https://books.google.com/books?id=muNHAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed 30 Sept. 2020.

[8] – https://library.columbia.edu/libraries/rbml/exhibitions/bhc/2014-2015.html. Accessed 3 Oct. 2020.

[9] – Shalev, Zur. “Sacred Geography, Antiquarianism and Visual Erudition: Benito Arias Montano and the Maps in the Antwerp Polyglot Bible.” Imago Mundi, vol. 55, 2003, pp. 56–80. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3594756. Accessed 4 Oct. 2020.

[10] – Stenhouse, William. “Panvinio and renditions of history and antiquity in the late renaissance”, 2012. https://www.academia.edu/1973264/Panvinio_and_renditions_of_history_and_antiquity_in_the_late_renaissance. Accessed 4 Oct. 2020.

[11] –  Matei-Chesnoiu, Monica. “Geography as the Eye of History.” 2012. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9781137029331_2. Accessed 4 Oct. 2020.

[12] – Eriksen, Anne. “Time and Exemplarity.” 2017.
https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/228564098.pdf. Accessed 4 Oct. 2020.

[13] – Valeria A. Escauriaza López Fadul. “LANGUAGES, KNOWLEDGE, AND EMPIRE IN THE EARLY MODERN IBERIAN WORLD (1492-1650)”. 2015. file:///C:/Users/carle/Downloads/LopezFadul_princeton_0181D_11490.pdf. Accessed 4 Oct. 2020.

[14] – Popper, Nicholas. “An Ocean of Lies: The Problem of Historical Evidence in the Sixteenth Century.” Huntington Library Quarterly, vol. 74, no. 3, 2011, pp. 375–400. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/hlq.2011.74.3.375. Accessed 4 Oct. 2020.

[15] – Anne Ericksen. “How to Study History: Nicolas Lenglet Dufresnoy and the Heritage of ars historica“. 2015. file:///C:/Users/carle/Downloads/How_to_Study_History_Nicolas_Lenglet_Dufresnoy_and.pdf. Accessed 4 Oct. 2020.

[16] – Jerry Brotton. “A History of the World in Twelve Maps.” 2014. https://books.google.com/books?id=QUMCDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA242&lpg=PA242&dq=jean+bodin+%22two+eyes+of+history%22&source=bl&ots=4w10n0Yi59&sig=ACfU3U303nv5h_bJ1SPB4bch_30g93ICfA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwipk7Gr95nsAhXXPM0KHS3_BSYQ6AEwBnoECAkQAg#v=onepage&q=jean%20bodin%20%22two%20eyes%20of%20history%22&f=false. Accessed 4 Oct. 2020.

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Scientific History

“History has now become a science – a cut-and-dried science, if you will, but a science which has made, perhaps, more progress the past half century than any other.”
The Catholic Historical Review, vol. 2, no. 2, 1916[1, p.240]

“What exactly is scientific history? …it is history using the full resources of modern scholarship to carry out its primary task of finding out what happened in the past.”
– W. H. Walsh (1973)[2, p.204]

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References:

[1] – “Part I: The Auxiliary Sciences. II. Chronology.” The Catholic Historical Review, vol. 2, no. 2, 1916, pp. 240–243. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/25011427. Accessed 3 Oct. 2020.

[2] – WALSH, W. H. “HISTORY AS SCIENCE AND HISTORY AS MORE THAN SCIENCE.” The Virginia Quarterly Review, vol. 49, no. 2, 1973, pp. 196–212. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/26435531. Accessed 4 Oct. 2020.

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Examining Fomenko’s New Chronology

This article contains the links to my detailed examination of Fomenko’s New Chronology and the overall grade that Fomenko’s New Chronology currently has.

Fomenko’s current overall grade is: 46/49, 93.87%, 4.0 GPA[1]

1 – CH. 1.1, VOL. 1, HISTORY: FICTION OR SCIENCE?. 6/6, 100%

2 – CH. 1.2, VOL. 1, HISTORY: FICTION OR SCIENCE?. 33/36, 91.66%

3 – CH. 1.3.1.1, VOL. 1, HISTORY: FICTION OR SCIENCE?. 7/7, 100%

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References:

[1] – https://achs.edu/grading-scale. Accessed 1 Oct. 2020.

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