The Hebrew Calendar

The day is from one sundown to another. It has a seven day week where all the days were named the numbers 1 through 6 and the 7th was named the Sabbath.[1, p.31] Sunday marks the start of the week.[2, p.113] The days consist of 24 hours and each hour consists of 1080 parts.[2, p.115]

The names/numbers of the days are:[2, p.113]
1 – yom rishon
2 – yom sheni
3 – yom shelishi
4 – yom revi’i
5 – yom hamishi
6 – yom shishi
7 – yom shabbat

The calendar has 13 months in a leap year.[2, p.114] The different spellings for the months below are ordered according to the order of the citation. The numbers after the month names represent the number of days in the month. Some months have two options for their number of days and those options are represented by the numbers with a / between them.

The 13 months of the old Hebrew Calendar:[1, pp.30-31], [2, p.114]
1 – Nisan (30)
2 – Jyar/Iyyar (29)
3 – Sivan (30)
4 – Tamuz/Tammuz (29)
5 – Ab/Av (30)
6 – Elul (29)
7 – Tisri/Tishri (30)
8 – Marchesvan/Marheshvan (29/30)
9 – Casleu/Kislev (29/30)
10 – Tebeth/Tevet (29)
11 – Shebat/Shevat (30)
12 – Adar I (30)
13 – Adar II (29)

The New Year (Rosh ha-Shanah) begins on Tisri’s yom rishon (the first day of the seventh month).[2, p.114]

History

359 CE: This is the earliest date given to the creation of the Hebrew calendar. There is debate about the correct dating. A C9th or later date was given by Stern (2001).[2, p.113]

C9th: Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi produced the earliest known surviving Hebrew calendar description.[2, p.113]

1122: Savasorda produced the earliest extensive work on the Hebrew calendar. Reingold & Dershowitz (2018) said Savasorda’s work was from the C11th[2, p.113] but then in their references I think they listed it as being from 1122 (C12th).[2, p.141]

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References:

[1] – James Cecil Macdonald. “Chronologies and Calendars” (London, 1897). Accessed Jan. 2021.

[2] – Edward M. Reingold & Nachum Dershowitz. “Calendrical Calculations: The Ultimate Edition” (Cambridge, 2018). Accessed 27 Jan. 2021.

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